Year : 2015 | Volume
: 31 | Issue : 4 | Page : 304--311
Intravesical immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Jan-Friedrich Jokisch, Alexander Karl, Christian Stief
Department of Urology, LMU Munich, München, Germany
Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive urothelial cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignancy of the urinary bladder. The high recurrence rate (up to 80%) and risk of progression (up to 30%) reflect the need for long-term follow-up and sometimes multiple interventions. To reduce the rate of recurrences and tumor progression, intravesical immunotherapy, especially the use of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), represents the gold standard adjuvant treatment of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). This article reviews the role of BCG therapy and several promising new immunotherapeutic approaches such as mycobacterium phlei cell wall-nucleic acid complex, interleukin-10 (IL-10) antibody, vaccine-based therapy, alpha-emitter therapy, and photodynamic therapy checkpoint inhibitors.
Methods: A systematic literature review was performed using the terms (immunotherapy, NMIBC, BCG, and intravesical) using PubMed and Cochrane databases.
Results: BCG represents the most common intravesical immunotherapeutic agent for the adjuvant treatment of high-risk NMIBC. Its use is associated with a significant reduction of recurrence and progression. Patients with NMIBC of intermediate and high-risk benefit the most from BCG therapy. To achieve maximal efficacy, an induction therapy followed by a maintenance schedule should be used. Full-dose BCG is recommended to obtain ideal antitumoral activity and there is no evidence of a reduction of side effects in patients treated with a reduced dose. There are multiple new approaches and agents in immunotherapy with potential and promising antineoplastic effects.
Conclusions: The beneficial effect of BCG is well documented and established. To reduce the tumor specific mortality, it is essential to follow guideline-based treatment. In patients with BCG-failure, there are new promising alternatives other than BCG but BCG remains the gold standard at this stage.
Department of Urology, LMU Munich, München
|How to cite this article:|
Jokisch JF, Karl A, Stief C. Intravesical immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.Indian J Urol 2015;31:304-311
|How to cite this URL:|
Jokisch JF, Karl A, Stief C. Intravesical immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Apr 17 ];31:304-311
Available from: https://www.indianjurol.com/article.asp?issn=0970-1591;year=2015;volume=31;issue=4;spage=304;epage=311;aulast=Jokisch;type=0