Indian Journal of Urology
: 2010  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 515-

Pediatric urolithiasis: A challenging problem

MS Ansari 
 Department of Urology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Lucknow, U.P, India

Correspondence Address:
M S Ansari
Department of Urology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Lucknow, U.P

How to cite this article:
Ansari M S. Pediatric urolithiasis: A challenging problem.Indian J Urol 2010;26:515-515

How to cite this URL:
Ansari M S. Pediatric urolithiasis: A challenging problem. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Oct 24 ];26:515-515
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Much has been written about adult urolithiasis but the literature on pediatric urolithiasis is still sparse. Epidemiological studies have shown a progressive increase in the incidence of the pediatric urolithiasis worldwide. Pediatric urolithiasis is unique and distinct from adult urolithiasis in regards of its prevalence, etiology and clinical presentation. The entity raises many safety concerns on account of the distinct urological anatomy and physiology of pediatric patients besides the radiation hazards involved in evaluation and treatment. But it has similarities to the adult urolithiasis in other aspects like evaluation and treatment. Over the last two decades, the technical advances such as advent of extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESWL), its applicability to the pediatric population first in 1986, and availability of miniaturized fiber optics and endourological equipments have reduced the differences in the treatment approaches between the two. Over these years, the open surgery has largely gone down and has been replaced by ESWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and ureteroscopy (URS). Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is another emerging frontier for the treatment of upper tract urolithiasis in this age group.

The purpose of this symposium is to review the pediatric urolithiasis in its current state. The symposium encompasses the medical components like epidemiology, etiology, nutritional aspects, basic evaluation and the decision-making. The symposium also focuses on the various types of interventions and approaches, with special reference to the technicalities involved in access, availability of various types of pediatric endoscopes and equipments used to treat pediatric urolithiasis, and finally, the outcomes.