Indian Journal of Urology
: 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84--94

Treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer

Makarand V Khochikar 
 Department of Uro-Oncology, Siddhi Vinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, India

Correspondence Address:
Makarand V Khochikar
Department of Uro-Oncology, Siddhi Vinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj - 416 410

Background: There is a significant variation in the treatment strategies adopted for the treatment of locally advanced T3b, T4a, N1-3 and metastatic bladder cancer. There is increasing evidence that we would be able to offer them some benefit in terms of disease-free survival and improving the quality of life. This article is aimed at reviewing the current literature on the treatment strategies in locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Extensive literature search was done on Medline/Pubmed from 1980-2007 using the key words - treatment of locally advanced, metastatic bladder cancer. Standard textbooks on urology, urologic oncology and monograms were reviewed. Guidelines such as National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, European Urology Association guidelines and American Urology Association guidelines were also studied. Results and Conclusions: There is a place for radical cystectomy in locally advanced T3b-T4 and N1-3 bladder cancer. Radical cystectomy alone rarely cures this subgroup of patients. There is increasing evidence that meticulous surgical clearance and extended lymphadenectomy has significant impact on disease-free survival. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been found to be effective in terms of recurrence-free survival and better than cystectomy alone. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy also has beneficial effects in terms of downstaging the disease and improving recurrence-free survival. This perioperative chemotherapy (adjuvant/neoadjuvant) has 5-7% survival benefit and 10% reduction in the death due to cancer disease. Excellent five-year survival rates have been achieved in patients achieving pT0 stage at surgery following chemotherapy (around 80%) and overall 40% five-year survival in node positive patients, which is promising. Though practiced widely, perioperative chemotherapy is not considered as a standard of care as yet. Current ongoing trials are likely to help us in reaching a consensus over this. There is no role of preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced/metastatic bladder cancer except in non TCC bilharzial/squamous cell carcinoma of bladder. Use of nomograms and prognostic factor evaluation may help us in the future in predicting the disease relapse and may help us in tailoring the treatment accordingly. Newer and more effective chemotherapeutic drugs and ongoing trials will have a significant impact on the treatment strategies and outcome of these patients in the future.

How to cite this article:
Khochikar MV. Treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.Indian J Urol 2008;24:84-94

How to cite this URL:
Khochikar MV. Treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2023 Jan 29 ];24:84-94
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