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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 276-282

Ureteral endometriosis: A systematic literature review

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diakonie-Klinikum Schwäbisch Hall gGmbH, Schwäbisch Hall, Germany
2 Department of Surgery, Vascular Unit, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece
3 Department of University Urology Clinic, Laiko Hospital, University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece

Correspondence Address:
Viktoria-Varvara Palla
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Diakonie-Klinikum Schwäbisch Hall gGmbH, Schwäbisch Hall
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/iju.IJU_84_17

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Introduction: Ureteral endometriosis is a rare disease affecting women of childbearing age which presents with nonspecific symptoms and it may result in severe morbidity. The aim of this study was to review evidence about incidence, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of ureteral endometriosis. Materials and Methods: PubMed Central database was searched to identify studies reporting cases of ureteral endometriosis. “Ureter” or “Ureteral” and “Endometriosis” were used as key words. Database was searched for articles published since 1996, in English without restrictions regarding the study design. Results: From 420 studies obtained through database search, 104 articles were finally included in this review, including a total of 1384 patients with ureteral endometriosis. Data regarding age, location, pathological findings, and interventions were extracted. Mean patients' age was 38.6 years, whereas the therapeutic arsenal included hormonal, endoscopic, and/or surgical treatment. Conclusions: Ureteral endometriosis represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinicians and high clinical suspicion is needed to identify it.

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