Indian Journal of Urology Users online:879  
Home Current Issue Ahead of print Editorial Board Archives Symposia Guidelines Subscriptions Login 
Print this page  Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 283-288

Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

1 Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
2 Department of Urology, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Correspondence Address:
Michael C Risk
Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, One Veteran's Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.166449

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer”and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded462    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 11    

Recommend this journal