|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 33-37
External validation of the modified Glasgow prognostic score for renal cancer
Caroline G Tai1, Timothy V Johnson1, Ammara Abbasi1, Lindsey Herrell1, Wayne B Harris1, Omer Kucuk2, Daniel J Canter1, Kenneth Ogan1, John G Pattaras1, Peter T Nieh1, Viraj A Master1
1 Department of Urology, Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
2 Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
|Date of Web Publication||2-Jan-2014|
Viraj A Master
Department of Urology, 1365 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, 404 217 6419
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Purpose: The modified Glasgow prognostic Score (mGPS) incorporates C-reactive protein and albumin as a clinically useful marker of tumor behavior. The ability of the mGPS to predict metastasis in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unknown in an external validation cohort.
Patients and Methods: Patients with clinically localized clear cell RCC were followed for 1 year post-operatively. Metastases were identified radiologically. Patients were categorized by mGPS score as low-risk (mGPS = 0 points), intermediate-risk (mGPS = 1 point) and high-risk (mGPS = 2 points). Univariate, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses examined Recurrence -free survival (RFS) across patient and disease characteristics.
Results: Of the 129 patients in this study, 23.3% developed metastases. Of low, intermediate and high risk patients, 10.1%, 38.9% and 89.9% recurred during the study. After accounting for various patient and tumor characteristics in multivariate analysis including stage and grade, only mGPS was significantly associated with RFS. Compared with low-risk patients, intermediate- and high-risk patients experienced a 4-fold (hazard ratios [HR]: 4.035, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.312-12.415, P = 0.015) and 7-fold (HR: 7.012, 95% CI: 2.126-23.123 P < 0.001) risk of metastasis, respectively.
Conclusions: mGPS is a robust predictor of metastasis following potentially curative nephrectomy for localized RCC. Clinicians may consider mGPS as an adjunct to identify high-risk patients for possible enrollment into clinical trials or for patient counseling
Keywords: Albumin, biological markers, C-reactive protein, metastasis, renal cell carcinoma
|How to cite this article:|
Tai CG, Johnson TV, Abbasi A, Herrell L, Harris WB, Kucuk O, Canter DJ, Ogan K, Pattaras JG, Nieh PT, Master VA. External validation of the modified Glasgow prognostic score for renal cancer. Indian J Urol 2014;30:33-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Tai CG, Johnson TV, Abbasi A, Herrell L, Harris WB, Kucuk O, Canter DJ, Ogan K, Pattaras JG, Nieh PT, Master VA. External validation of the modified Glasgow prognostic score for renal cancer. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2021 Apr 20];30:33-7. Available from: https://www.indianjurol.com/text.asp?2014/30/1/33/124203
| Introduction|| |
Over 50,000 Americans are diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) annually.  This number has increased significantly over the last three decades, in part due to increased radiologically-diagnosed tumors.  Of these patients, the majority present with localized disease: Approximately 75% of patients with radiologically-diagnosed tumors and approximately 50% with symptomatic tumors.  Approximately, one-third of patients presenting with localized RCC will eventually experience either a local or distant recurrence following therapy. ,
Several studies have focused on systemic inflammatory markers, in particular C-reactive protein (CRP). ,,,,, CRP, an acute-phase reactant, primarily stimulates the innate immune system by facilitating phagocytosis, but also modulates the adaptive immunity. , Elevated CRP levels reflect systemic inflammation and are associated with poor outcomes in heart disease, depression and nearly all malignancies. ,, In RCC, tumor progression typically involves local production of proinflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), which upregulate hepatic and intratumoral CRP production.  Consequently, in RCC elevated pre-operative CRP is associated with poor outcomes (metastasis and mortality). ,,,,, While CRP remains a potent predictor of outcomes, several studies have noted the added benefit of considering hypoalbuminemia with CRP as measured by the Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) as first described by McMillan et al. ,,,,, The mGPS scores patients based on CRP (CRP > 10 mg/L = 1 point) and albumin (albumin < 3.5 g/dL = 1 point) and categorizes them as low-risk (0 points), intermediate-risk (1 point) and high-risk (2 points). Patients with a CRP concentration elevation (>10 mg/L) and a decreased serum albumin concentration (< 3.5 mg/L) score 2. Those patients with an elevated CRP concentration (>10 mg/L) score 1 and finally patients with a CRP concentration of < 10 mg/L and any albumin level score 0.
Ramsey et al. noted the mGPS's potential for predicting outcomes in patients with metastatic RCC.  In a study of 119 patients, intermediate and high-risk mGPS scores were associated with significantly poorer cancer-specific survival. However, the mGPS's prognostic potential for the development of metastases in patients with localized RCC has not been reported and not with an external validation study. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to assess the mGPS's value in predicting 1 year Recurrence-free survival (RFS) among patients treated surgically for localized RCC. We hypothesized that increasing mGPS score would correlate with increased risk of recurrence.
| Patients and Methods|| |
This prospective cohort study followed 129 patients for 1 year following potentially curative radical nephrectomy with negative surgical margins for clear cell RCC. Patients were recruited at Emory University Hospital between November 2006 and January 2008. Inclusion criteria consisted of clear cell histology and exclusion criteria consisted of T4, nodal or metastatic disease or age less than 18 years. No patients received systemic therapy following nephrectomy. The Emory University Institutional Review Board approved this protocol. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to inclusion into the study registry.
Clinical and laboratory assessment
Patients were staged pathologically according to the 1997 TNM staging system for renal tumor classification  and tumors were graded based on Fuhrman criteria.  Staging was initially based on six stages (T1a, T1b, T2, T3a, T3b and T3c). However, one-way analysis of variance demonstrated no significant difference in outcomes between T1a and T1b and between T3a, T3b and T3c.
Prior to surgery, clinical stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status, (ECOG-PS), routine laboratory measurements and CRP levels were assessed. The limit of detection of the assay for CRP was < 0.2 mg/L. The inter- and intra-assay variability for all laboratory values were < 10%. Post-operatively we assessed patients using the UCLA integrated staging system (UISS) (based on stage, grade and ECOG-PS),  the Mayo Clinic stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score (based on stage, nodal disease, tumor size, grade, tumor necrosis and metastases),  and the Kattan clinical score (presenting symptoms, histology, tumor size and stage). 
This study employed assessed RFS. Metastases were diagnosed radiologically using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging at routine follow-up visits.
Demographic and clinicopathological variables (except age and tumor size) were treated as categorical variables. All laboratory variables, age and tumor size were treated as continuous variables. Univariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with 1 year RFS, Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared analysis for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables. Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted to assess the impact of mGPS on RFS. Variables in univariate analysis with P ≤ 0.100 were included in multivariate analysis. Cox regression analyses with simultaneous entry regression were used to assess the association between potential contributing factors [Table 1] and RFS. The hazard ratios (HRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Statistical significance in this study was set at P < 0.05. Models were assessed for co-linearity and interaction. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Harrell's C was calculated using R Statistical Software.
|Table 1: Patient characteristics; univariate analysis of recurrence-free survival|
Click here to view
| Results|| |
This study cohort consisted of 129 consecutive patients who underwent potentially curative nephrectomy for localized clear cell RCC. The majority of patients were male and white, with a median interquartile range (IQR) age of 62.0 (54.0-70.0) years [Table 1]. Of all patients, 63.6% presented with T-stage 1 disease, 8.5% with T2 disease and 27.9% presented with T3 disease. In addition, 5.4% presented with grade 1 disease, 35.7% presented with grade 2 disease and 45.7% presented with grade 3 disease and 13.2% presented with grade 4 disease. Of all patients, 23.3% developed metastases within 1 year of surgery. Median IQR follow-up period was 25.5 (12.0-32.4) months. Median IQR pre-operative CRP values for patients who did and did not develop metastases were 58.4 (8.8-132.2) and 2.9 (1.4-6.9) mg/L, respectively. Median IQR pre-operative albumin values for patients who did and did not develop metastases were 3.4 (2.7-3.6) and 3.7 (3.6-3.9) mg/L, respectively. Of the cohort, 62.0% were categorized by the mGPS as low-risk, 20.9% as intermediate-risk and 17.1% as high-risk.
Cox regression analysis of 1 year RFS
In all, 30 (23.3%) patients developed metastases. Univariate analysis identified several variables significantly associated with RFS: T-Stage and Fuhrman Grade; tumor size; tumor necrosis; UISS, SSIGN and Kattan clinical scores; and mGPS [Table 1]. These variables were included in multivariate analysis. After accounting for these variables, only, mGPS was significantly associated with 1 year RFS [Table 2]. Compared with low-risk patients, intermediate- and high-risk patients experienced a 4-fold (HR: 4.035, 95% CI: 1.312-12.415, P = 0.015) and 7-fold (HR: 7.012, 95% CI: 2.126-23.123 P < 0.001) risk of metastasis within 1 year of surgery, respectively. Harrell's C indicated that the model has good predictive ability (C = 0.887 95% CI: 0.787, 0.987).
|Table 2: Multivariate cox regression analyses of predictors of recurrence-free survival among patients with localized renal cell carcinoma|
Click here to view
Kaplan-Meier analysis of 1 year RFS
Along with multivariate Cox regression, the relationship between mGPS and 1 year RFS was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis [Figure 1]. Of low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, 10.1%, 38.9% and 89.9% recurred. Mean (95% CI) RFS for low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups was 38.4 (36.4-40.4), 22.9 (15.6-30.2) and 6.5 (2.9-10.1), respectively. Compared with low-risk patients, intermediate- and high-risk patients suffered significantly higher probability of recurrence (log rank, P < 0.001).
|Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier curve of likelihood of developing metastases. Blue line is Glasgow prognostic Score (mGPS = 0), Green Line is mGPS = 1 and Red Line is mGPS = 2|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Given the diversity in outcomes, investigators have sought prognostic markers of metastasis and mortality in RCC. These markers include hemoglobin, calcium and lactate dehydrogenase, platelets and CRP. ,,,,, Recent studies have improved prognostic potential through novel scores that combine these factors. In particular, the mGPS carries significant prognostic potential of poor outcomes in metastatic RCC and other diseases including pancreas, lung, liver and ovarian cancer, in a robust and clinically easy to use calculation. ,,,,,, However, the mGPS's utility in localized RCC has not been assessed. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study. We hypothesized that increasing mGPS score would correlate with increased risk of recurrence.
Many currently use prediction models for survival after a diagnosis of renal cancer rely on post-operative pathological factors, including factors, which may not always be consistently measured, such as coagulative necrosis. Some have to be plotted on a nomogram and all involve multiple factors. mGPS is a simple model, with only two factors to calculate, CRP and albumin. No knowledge of pathologic factors is required. Both of these tests can be performed world-wide and are inexpensive. For instance, a patient with mGPS score of 2, is unlikely to benefit from radical therapy and may be counseled as such and indeed choice of therapy may be goal directed toward palliation for example, depending upon the wishes of the patient and the treating physician.
Pre-operative mGPS predicts 1 year recurrence risk in localized RCC
The minority of patients presented with intermediate (14.0%) and high-risk (17.1%) disease [Table 1]. However, these patients accounted for the majority of metastases. Overall 23% of our cohort developed metastases within 1 year of potentially curative nephrectomy. While approximately 10.1% of low-risk patients relapsed with metastatic disease, approximately 38.9% and 89.9% of intermediate and high-risk patients developed metastases, respectively. It is important to understand that these patients likely had micrometastatic disease at diagnosis.
Consequently, univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrate mGPS's prognostic potential. Kaplan-Meier curves reveal the significant decline in RFS experienced by intermediate- and high- risk patients (log rank, P < 0.001) [Figure 1]. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for various patient and disease characteristics, only mGPS was significantly associated with RFS (P < 0.001) [Table 2]. Compared with low-risk patients, intermediate-risk patients exhibited 10-fold increased risk of metastasis (OR: 4.035, 95% CI: 1.312-12.415, P = 0.015). Most importantly, high-risk patients exhibited a 90-fold increased risk of metastasis (HR: 7.012, 95% CI: 2.126-23.123 P < 0.001). Overall, these findings suggest the robust potential of mGPS to predict recurrence in patients undergoing potentially curative nephrectomy for localized RCC.
Tumor aggression or host inadequacy?
RCC metastatic progression has been linked to inflammatory pathways such as the IL-6/CRP network.  IL-6, produced in part by RCC cells, is a known mediator of inflammation and the primary inducer of CRP production in both hepatocytes and RCC tumor cells.  Consequently, elevations in the IL-6/CRP axis have been strongly linked to tumor grade, tumor size and metastases.  These correlations confirm the attribution of poor outcomes to the tumor. 
However, the findings of the present study suggest that additional processes might contribute to disease recurrence. Specifically, mGPS consists of albumin, along with CRP. Previous studies have linked hypoalbuminemia with inflammation and cachexia of cancer.  These studies suggest that low albumin reflects a catabolic state in which patients lose muscle mass and experience metabolic disturbances. , Muscle atrophy occurs through complex processes involving proteolytic systems, including lysosomes, proteosomes, calcium-dependent systems and caspases.  These and other proteolytic processes also play critical roles in immune surveillance of cancer. ,, Perhaps these systems have a finite capacity, such that cachectic emphasis on muscle catabolism de-emphasizes surveillance of tumor cells; thus, increasing the risk of metastasis. Alternatively, perhaps cachexia itself weakens the immune system, possibly even before other clinical wasting symptoms.  Weakened immune function might also reduce immune surveillance to tumor cells, thereby predisposing cachectic patients with localized RCC to a higher risk of recurrence.
CRP and albumin were only measured once prior to surgery as part of a standard pre-operative laboratory panel at our institution. Future studies should achieve a larger pre-operative baseline to account for this stressor. In addition, only patients with clear cell RCC were included in this study as opposed to other histologies. We also did not account for socio-economic and lifestyle variables, such as BMI, smoking and diet, which can affect CRP and therefore be confounding variables.  Our study also had a higher rate of recurrence than one might expect. This may reflect a selection bias. Though we studied consecutive patients, the patient population at our academic center may have more significant disease than the general population. Another concern is that our findings reflect a follow-up of only 1 year. Future studies should confirm this relationship over a longer period of time, although we wish to emphasize these short-term findings are striking, in terms of the early development of metastases and survival.
| Conclusions|| |
Despite a brief follow-up window, these findings suggest the clinical potential for the mGPS in the prediction of metastases in patients with localized clear cell RCC undergoing potentially curative nephrectomy. Given the increased risk of metastasis among patients, especially with high risk mGPS scores, clinicians should consider increasing the frequency of surveillance with increased mGPS score or potentially counsel patients about their high-risk of metastasis and potential enrollment into a clinical trial.
| References|| |
|1.||Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, et al. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA Cancer J Clin 2008;58:71-96. |
|2.||Luciani LG, Cestari R, Tallarigo C. Incidental renal cell carcinoma-age and stage characterization and clinical implications: Study of 1092 patients (1982-1997). Urology 2000;56:58-62. |
|3.||Janzen NK, Kim HL, Figlin RA, Belldegrun AS. Surveillance after radical or partial nephrectomy for localized renal cell carcinoma and management of recurrent disease. Urol Clin North Am 2003;30:843-52. |
|4.||Lam JS, Shvarts O, Leppert JT, Figlin RA, Belldegrun AS. Renal cell carcinoma 2005: New frontiers in staging, prognostication and targeted molecular therapy. J Urol 2005;173:1853-62. |
|5.||Iimura Y, Saito K, Fujii Y, Kumagai J, Kawakami S, Komai Y, et al. Development and external validation of a new outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein and TNM classification: The TNM-C score. J Urol 2009;181:1004-12. |
|6.||Ljungberg B. Prognostic markers in renal cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol 2007;17:303-8. |
|7.||Karakiewicz PI, Hutterer GC, Trinh QD, Jeldres C, Perrotte P, Gallina A, et al. C-reactive protein is an informative predictor of renal cell carcinoma-specific mortality: A European study of 313 patients. Cancer 2007;110:1241-7. |
|8.||Lamb GW, McArdle PA, Ramsey S, McNichol AM, Edwards J, Aitchison M, et al. The relationship between the local and systemic inflammatory responses and survival in patients undergoing resection for localized renal cancer. BJU Int 2008;102:756-61. |
|9.||Johnson TV, Young AN, Osunkoya AO, Master VA. C-reactive protein as a clinically useful biomarker of metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Mol Diagn Ther 2010;14:191-3. |
|10.||Jabs WJ, Busse M, Krüger S, Jocham D, Steinhoff J, Doehn C. Expression of C-reactive protein by renal cell carcinomas and unaffected surrounding renal tissue. Kidney Int 2005;68:2103-10. |
|11.||Canna K, McMillan DC, McKee RF, McNicol AM, Horgan PG, McArdle CS. Evaluation of a cumulative prognostic score based on the systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 2004;90:1707-9. |
|12.||McKeown DJ, Brown DJ, Kelly A, Wallace AM, McMillan DC. The relationship between circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2004;91:1993-5. |
|13.||Komai Y, Saito K, Sakai K, Morimoto S. Increased preoperative serum C-reactive protein level predicts a poor prognosis in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma. BJU Int 2007;99:77-80. |
|14.||Johnson TV, Abbasi A, Owen-Smith A, Young A, Ogan K, Pattaras J, et al. Absolute preoperative C-reactive protein predicts metastasis and mortality in the first year following potentially curative nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 2010;183:480-5. |
|15.||Forrest LM, McMillan DC, McArdle CS, Angerson WJ, Dunlop DJ. Evaluation of cumulative prognostic scores based on the systemic inflammatory response in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2003;89:1028-30. |
|16.||Forrest LM, McMillan DC, McArdle CS, Angerson WJ, Dunlop DJ. Comparison of an inflammation-based prognostic score (GPS) with performance status (ECOG) in patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2004;90:1704-6. |
|17.||Al Murri AM, Bartlett JM, Canney PA, Doughty JC, Wilson C, McMillan DC. Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score (GPS) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2006;94:227-30. |
|18.||Crumley AB, McMillan DC, McKernan M, McDonald AC, Stuart RC. Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score in patients with inoperable gastro-oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 2006;94:637-41. |
|19.||Glen P, Jamieson NB, McMillan DC, Carter R, Imrie CW, McKay CJ. Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Pancreatology 2006;6:450-3. |
|20.||Roxburgh CS, McMillan DC. Role of systemic inflammatory response in predicting survival in patients with primary operable cancer. Future Oncol 2010;6:149-63. |
|21.||Ramsey S, Lamb GW, Aitchison M, Graham J, McMillan DC. Evaluation of an inflammation-based prognostic score in patients with metastatic renal cancer. Cancer 2007;109:205-12. |
|22.||Sobin LH, Fleming ID. TNM classification of malignant tumors, fifth edition (1997). Union internationale contre le cancer and the American joint committee on cancer. Cancer 1997;80:1803-4. |
|23.||Fuhrrman SA, Lasky LC, Limas C. Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1982;6:655-63. |
|24.||Zisman A, Pantuck AJ, Wieder J, Chao DH, Dorey F, Said JW, et al. Risk group assessment and clinical outcome algorithm to predict the natural history of patients with surgically resected renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:4559-66. |
|25.||Frank I, Blute ML, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, Weaver AL, Zincke H. An outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy based on tumor stage, size, grade and necrosis: The SSIGN score. J Urol 2002;168:2395-400. |
|26.||Kattan MW, Reuter V, Motzer RJ, Katz J, Russo P. A postoperative prognostic nomogram for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 2001;166:63-7. |
|27.||McMillan DC, Scott HR, Watson WS, Preston T, Milroy R, McArdle CS. Longitudinal study of body cell mass depletion and the inflammatory response in cancer patients. Nutr Cancer 1998;31:101-5. |
|28.||Scott HR, McMillan DC, Forrest LM, Brown DJ, McArdle CS, Milroy R. The systemic inflammatory response, weight loss, performance status and survival in patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2002;87:264-7. |
|29.||Costelli P, Reffo P, Penna F, Autelli R, Bonelli G, Baccino FM. Ca (2+)-dependent proteolysis in muscle wasting. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2005;37:2134-46. |
|30.||Crotzer VL, Blum JS. Cytosol to lysosome transport of intracellular antigens during immune surveillance. Traffic 2008;9:10-6. |
|31.||Trapani JA, Sutton VR. Granzyme B: Pro-apoptotic, antiviral and antitumor functions. Curr Opin Immunol 2003;15:533-43. |
|32.||Goldberg AL. Functions of the proteasome: From protein degradation and immune surveillance to cancer therapy. Biochem Soc Trans 2007;35:12-7. |
|33.||Faber J, Vos AP, Kegler D, Argilés J, Laviano A, Garssen J, et al. Impaired immune function: An early marker for cancer cachexia. Oncol Rep 2009;22:1403-6. |
|34.||Heikkilä K, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA. A systematic review of the association between circulating concentrations of C reactive protein and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007;61:824-33. |
[Table 1], [Table 2]