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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-46

Discordant clinical and histological findings predict failure of reconstruction in suspected obstructive azoospermia

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Rajeev Kumar
Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.94955

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Aims and Objectives: To analyze testicular histopathology in men diagnosed as idiopathic obstructive azoospermia (IOA) based on normal spermatogenesis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) but with absence of sperms in the epididymis during surgical exploration. Materials and Methods: Men presenting with infertility due to IOA during the study period from July 2008 to July 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Clinical examination, semen analysis, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular FNAC were done. Men with normal volume azoospermia with normal spermatogenesis on FNAC and palpable vas were offered scrotal exploration for microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis (VEA). Patients in whom reconstruction was not feasible intraoperatively were analyzed for the causes of failure. The FNAC, FSH and biopsy of these patients were compared. Results: 77 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 38 men, sperm was present in the epididymal fluid and VEA was performed. In 39 men, reconstruction was not feasible. Thirty-four of these 39 men had normal FSH and testicular volume. In 5 of these 39 men, serum FSH was high (mean 17.48 mIU/ml) and testes were small in size (mean volume 14.5 ml). Testicular biopsy in two of these five men showed patchy areas of atrophy, while the other three men had hyalinized seminiferous tubules with thickened basement membrane, maturation arrest and normal spermatogenesis, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC was discordant with histopathological examination (HPE) in four out of five patients of negative surgical exploration with raised FSH. Therefore, among men with idiopathic azoospermia, only those with both normal FSH and normal FNAC should be diagnosed as obstructive azoospermia and explored.

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