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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 238-244

Monitoring of the upper urinary tract in patients with bladder cancer

Department of Urology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, FL, USA

Correspondence Address:
Mark S Soloway
Department of Urology, University of Miami, FL
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.82844

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Upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is relatively rare tumor. Approximately 0.7-4% of patients with primary bladder cancer develops UUT-TCC. The symptoms related to an UUT-TCC often occur with an advanced stage which leads one to emphasize a surveillance strategy to monitor the UUT to allow for an earlier diagnosis. Although the risk of UUT-TCC after bladder cancer is well established, there is a paucity of recommendations suggesting the optimal method and frequency of monitoring the UUT and there is no consensus among them. This article reviews the recommendations on monitoring the UUT in patients with bladder cancer.

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