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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 538-543

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for 1-2 cm lower-pole renal calculi

Department of Urology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, 15, G Deshmukh Road, Mumbai-400 026, India

Correspondence Address:
Percy Jal Chibber
901, Purna, 68, Sir Pochkhanawala Road, Worli, Mumbai-400 030
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.44264

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Objectives: The most appropriate management of patients with lower-pole calyceal (LC) stones remains controversial. In this review we discuss the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the management of LC stones 1-2 cm in maximum dimension. Materials and Methods: A detailed literature review was performed to summarize the recent technical developments and controversies in PCNL. The results of PCNL for 1-2 cm LC calculi were reviewed. Results: PCNL is increasingly employed as a primary modality in the treatment of LC calculi. It has a high success rate and acceptably low percentage of major complications in experienced hands. Supine position is found to be as safe and effective as prone position. Urologist-acquired access is associated with fewer access-related complications and better stone-free rates. Ultrasound is increasingly employed as an imaging modality for obtaining access. There have been increasing reports of tubeless PCNL in the literature. Most patients undergoing tubeless PCNL do not need hemostatic agents as an adjuvant for hemostasis. Non-contrast computed tomography does not yield statistically valuable increase in the diagnosis of significant residual stones compared with that of plain X-ray and linear tomography. Comprehensive metabolic evaluation and aggressive medical management can control new stone recurrences and growth of residual fragments following PCNL. Conclusions: PCNL is a highly effective procedure with consistently high stone-free rates when compared with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or retrograde intrarenal surgery. The results also do not depend on anatomic factors and stone size. It is associated with low morbidity in experienced hands.

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