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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 61-67

Molecular markers in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: New insights into mechanisms and prognosis

1 Department of Urology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
2 Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia; Mellon Prostate Cancer Institute, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dan Theodorescu
Department of Urology, Box 422, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 22908
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.38606

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Urothelial carcinoma is potentially life-threatening and expensive to treat since for many patients, the diagnosis entails a lifetime of surveillance to detect recurrent disease. Advancements in technology have provided an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and defined distinct pathways in tumorigenesis and progression. At the molecular level, urothelial carcinoma is being seen as a disease with distinct pathways of carcinogenesis and progression and thus markers of these processes should be used as both diagnostics and predictors of progression and patient outcome. Herein we present a selective overview of the molecular underpinning of urothelial carcinogenesis and progression and discuss the potential for proteins involved in these processes to serve as biomarkers. The discovery of biomarkers has enabled the elucidation of targets for novel therapeutic agents to disrupt the deregulation underlying the development and progression of urothelial carcinogenesis.

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