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Year : 2000  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-23

Paediatric urolithiasis in western orissa - a 10-year study

Department of Urology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, India

Correspondence Address:
L K Sahu
Department of Urology, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack - 753 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Only a very few reports are available in the world lite­rature and almost no report are available in our country regarding urolithiasis in children. The incidence of uro­lithiasis is much more common in the western part of Orissa compared to other parts. This study was conducted during the last 10 years, i.e., from January 1988 to Janu­ary 1998, to throw light on the different aspects of paedi­atric urolithiasis.
The incidence was found to be high (8.41 %) with a male preponderance (male: female, 29: 1). Children below 10 years of age were the common victims. This disease was found to be more common in lower socio-economic status group, which is used to cheaper non-vegetarian diet. In the absence of facilities for ESWL and endoscopic stone removal, open surgery was the choice of the treatment.

Keywords: Paediatric Urolithiasis; Urolithiasis in Children.

How to cite this article:
Sahu L K, Hota D, Sahu J K, Haldar S, Sil K. Paediatric urolithiasis in western orissa - a 10-year study. Indian J Urol 2000;17:20-3

How to cite this URL:
Sahu L K, Hota D, Sahu J K, Haldar S, Sil K. Paediatric urolithiasis in western orissa - a 10-year study. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2000 [cited 2023 Jan 29];17:20-3. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Review of world literature indicates that only a few re­ports are available regarding urolithiasis in children. Al­most no report is available indicating study of paediatric urolithiasis in our country. Incidence of urolithiasis, as a whole, is much more common in the western part of Orissa, compared to other parts. This study was conducted with an attempt to throw light on the incidence, possible etiological factors, clinical manifestations and manage­ment of urolithiasis in children of Western Orissa during a period of 10 years (January 1988 to January 1998).

   Materials and Methods Top

During the period from January 1988 to January 1998, a total number of 713 new paediatric patients came to the V.S.S. Medical College Hospital, Burla, for urological services. Out of them 60 patients (8.41%) resented with symptoms of stone in the urinary tract [Figure 1]. All these patients were fully investigated with routine haematological, biochemical and radiological investigations for urolithiasis.

Out of these 60 patients, 30 were either lost to follow­up or were unwilling for surgery. The rest 30 patients were subjected to suitable surgical management with a follow­up period ranging from 6 months to 10 years. This study exclusively deals with urolithiasis in these 30 paediatric patients having stones located in 32 positions.

   Results and Discussion Top

The incidence of urolithiasis in children was found to be 8.41 %, of the total number of paediatric patients com­ing for urological services. Hassan et al [1] and Borgmann et al [2] reported the incidences of paediatric urolithiasis to be 0.0096% and 1.5% respectively. Such a high incidence of urolithiasis in the western part of Orissa might be attrib­uted to extreme temperature during summer, dehydration and urinary concentration, extreme scarcity of drinking water particularly in summer, poverty and poor nutritional status resulting in deficiencies of vitamins A and B 6 and frequent dysentery and other diarrhoeal disorders.

The age incidence has been shown in [Figure 2]. The av­erage age at diagnosis was found to be 7.43 years and maximum number of patients (63.38%) was less than 10 years. The incidence of urolithiasis below the age of 10 years was found to be 86.66%. This could be related to an increased incidence of urinary tract infection in that age group as postulated by Daischner et al. [3]

The study revealed a much higher incidence of urolithi­asis in male children (96.66%) than females (3.33%). Thus the male-female ratio was found to be 29:1. Our findings of the sex incidence of paediatric urolithiasis contradicts the findings of Reza et al [4] and O' Regan et al [5] in which the male-female ratio were 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. But Borg­mann et al [2] came across a higher incidence of urolithiasis in male children than female (18:1).

It was very important to note that this study revealed a higher incidence of urolithiasis (83.33%) in lower socio­economic group compared to higher socio-economic group (16.67%). We agree with Hassan et al [1] that the possible cause for this could be poverty, leading to malnutrition, deficiencies of vitamins A and B 6 and diarrhoeal disor­ders. The incidence was also found to be much higher (86.64%) in patients used to cheaper non-vegetarian diet like dry fish and pork, than those used to vegetarian diet (13.3%). Rich contents of phosphates and purines in ani­mal proteins could be the possible cause for the above findings. Majority of the patients (60%) presented with pain in the abdomen. Dysuria (40%) and haematuria (36.66%) were less common modes of presentation. 7 of our patients (23.33%) presented with acute retention of urine, due to stones impacted in the urethra. Common pre­senting symptoms have been shown in [Table 1].

Urolithiasis was associated with moderate to severe degree of urinary tract infection in 66.6% patients where­as the urine was sterile in the rest. In majority of the cases (65%), E.coli was found to be the offending orga­nism [Table 2].

Calculi in the lower urinary tract were found to be more common (68.75%) than that in the upper tract (31.25%) [Table 3]. Hassan et al [1] and Khalil et al [6] suggested that the lower urinary tract calculi were more common in de­veloping countries due to malnutrition and diarrhoeal dis­eases, whereas incidence of stone in upper tract is more common in developed countries because of metabolic dis­orders and urinary tract anomalies.

In the absence of facilities for ESWL, PCNL or endoscopic stone retrieval, open surgery was undertaken as shown in [Table 4].

   Conclusion Top

A study on paediatric urolithiasis for a period of 10 years had been conducted in Western Orissa. This study showed a much higher incidence of stones in children. Male chil­dren are much more prone to this disease than their fe­male counterparts. There was a higher incidence of stone below 10 years of age. Children belonging to lower socio­economic strata were the victims in majority. The lower urinary tract was found to be more commonly the seat of stones than the upper tract. In absence of sophisticated facilities, open surgery was indicated.

   References Top

1.Hassan J, Mabogunje OA. Urinary stones in children in Zaria. Ann Trop Paediatr 1993: 13: 269-271.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Borgmann V, Nagel R. Urolithiasis in childhood. Uro Int 1982; 37: 198-204.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Daeschner CW, Singleton EB, Curtis JC. Urinary tract calculi and nephrocalcinosis in infants and children. J Paediatr 1960: 57: 721­-731.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Malek RS. Kelalis PP. Paediatric Nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1975: 113: 545-551.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.O'Regan S, Homsy Y, Mongeau JG. Urolithiasis in children. Can J Surg 1982; 25: 566-568.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Sinno K, Boyce WH, Resnick MI. Childhood Urolithiasis. J Urol 1979; 121: 662-664.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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