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Figure 5: Left side laparoscopic nephrectomy steps continued. (a) Completed dissection of upper and lower window (UW, LW). (b) Circumferential dissection with delicate dissection between renal vein and artery. (c) Clipping of renal artery. (d) Clipping of renal vein

Figure 5: Left side laparoscopic nephrectomy steps continued. (a) Completed dissection of upper and lower window (UW, LW). (b) Circumferential dissection with delicate dissection between renal vein and artery. (c) Clipping of renal artery. (d) Clipping of renal vein