Figure 3: Summary of management guidelines for infertile males with a prior vasectomy or uncorrected undescended testes. *Earlier evaluation may be warranted if male or female infertility risk factors present or if the male questions his fertility potential. ** EAU guideline recommends second semen analysis if first noted to be abnormal. Sperm retrieval / ICSI is preferred to surgical treatment if (1) advanced female age is present, (2) female factors requiring IVF are present (3) the chance for success with sperm retrieval / ICSI exceeds the chance for success with surgical treatment or (4) sperm retrieval / ICSI is preferred by the couple for financial reasons. Ø Ideally treated at less than 1 year of age.