Figure 2: "Summary of management guidelines for infertile males presenting with a palpable varicocele or CBAVD. *Earlier evaluation may be warranted if male or female infertility risk factors present or if the male questions his fertility potential. **EAU guideline recommends second semen analysis if first noted to be abnormal ß If normal ipsilateral testicle size, offer follow-up monitoring with annual objective measurements of testicular size and / or semen analyses. ºFollow-up to include semen analysis at three-month intervals for one year or until pregnancy occurs. † EAU guidelines indicates that varicocele treatment should not be undertaken unless there has been a full discussion with the infertile couple regarding the uncertainties of treatment. Ø Ideally treated at less than 1 year of age.