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   2016| January-March  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 4, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Current management of urethral stricture disease
Thomas G Smith
January-March 2016, 32(1):27-33
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173108  PMID:26941491
Introduction: Broadly defined, urethral strictures are narrowing of the urethral lumen that is surrounded by corpus spongiosum, i.e., urethral meatus through the bulbar urethra. Urethral stenosis is narrowing of the posterior urethra, i.e., membranous urethra through bladder neck/prostate junction, which is not enveloped by corpus spongiosum. The disease has significant quality of life ramifications because many times younger patients are affected by this compared to many other urological diseases. Methods: A review of the scientific literature concerning urethral stricture, stenosis, treatment, and outcomes was performed using Medline and PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health). Abstracts from scientific meetings were included in this review. Results: There is level 3 evidence regarding the etiology and epidemiology of urethral strictures, stenoses, and pelvic fracture urethral injuries. Outcomes data from literature regarding intervention for urethral stricture are largely limited to level 3 evidence and expert opinion. There is a single level 1 study comparing urethral dilation and direct vision internal urethrotomy. Urethroplasty outcomes data are limited to level 3 case series. Conclusions: Progress is being made toward consistent terminology, and nomenclature which will, in turn, help to standardize treatment within the field of urology. Treatment for urethral stricture and stenosis remains inconsistent between reconstructive and nonreconstructive urologists due to varying treatment algorithms and approaches to disease management. Tissue engineering appears to be future for reconstructive urethral surgery with reports demonstrating feasibility in the use of different tissue substitutes and grafts.
  6,501 415 -
Chronic orchialgia: Review of treatments old and new
Bayo Tojuola, Jeffrey Layman, Ibrahim Kartal, Ahmet Gudelogul, Jamin Brahmbhatt, Sijo Parekattil
January-March 2016, 32(1):21-26
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173110  PMID:26941490
Introduction: Chronic orchialgia is historically and currently a challenging disease to treat. It is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for physicians. Conservative therapy has served as the first line of treatment. For those who fail conservative therapy, surgical intervention may be required. We aim to provide a review of currently available surgical options and novel surgical treatment options. Methods: A review of current literature was performed using PubMed. Literature discussing treatment options for chronic orchialgia were identified. The following search terms were used to identify literature that was relevant to this review: Chronic orchialgia, testicular pain, scrotal content pain, and microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord (MDSC). Results: The incidence of chronic orchialgia has been increasing over time. In the USA, it affects up to 100,000 men per year due to varying etiologies. The etiology of chronic orchialgia can be a confounding problem. Conservative therapy should be viewed as the first line therapy. Studies have reported poor success rates. Current surgical options for those who fail conservative options include varicocelectomy, MDSC, epididymectomy, and orchiectomy. Novel treatment options include microcryoablation of the peri-spermatic cord, botox injection, and amniofix injection. Conclusion: Chronic orchialgia has been and will continue to be a challenging disease to treat due to its multiple etiologies and variable treatment outcomes. Further studies are needed to better understand the problem. Treatment options for patients with chronic orchialgia are improving. Additional studies are warranted to better understand the long-term durability of this treatment options.
  5,539 241 -
Male chronic pelvic pain: An update
Christopher P Smith
January-March 2016, 32(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173105  PMID:26941492
Introduction: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. Methods: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. Results: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities. Triggers include certain comestibles as well as psychosocial factors that promote catastrophizing and illness focused behavior. Several validated tools are currently available to help diagnose and direct targeted therapy. Treatment should begin with the most simple and least invasive based on the presenting clinical phenotype. Conclusions: Although no gold-standard treatment exists, a multidisciplinary approach with multimodal therapy gives the UCPPS patient the best chance of symptom relief.
  4,892 198 -
Peyronie's disease: What's around the bend?
Aylin N Bilgutay, Alexander W Pastuszak
January-March 2016, 32(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173107  PMID:26941488
Introduction: Peyronie's disease (PD) is a fibrotic diathesis of the tunica albuginea that results in penile plaque formation and penile deformity, negatively affecting sexual and psychosocial function of both patients and their partners. In this review, we discuss the PD literature and PD treatment options, with special emphasis on potential future therapies. Methods: The PD literature was reviewed, and articles of interest were identified using keyword search in PubMed. Articles evaluating investigational and novel PD treatments were emphasized. Results: Existing PD treatment modalities are diverse and include oral, topical, intralesional, mechanical, and surgical therapies. Surgical treatment has high success rates and is indicated in men with significant, stable deformity. The United States Food and Drug Administration-approved intralesional collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection therapy is a minimally invasive option with demonstrated efficacy in PD. Other nonsurgical therapies have been reported, including Botox and stem cell therapy, but these currently have little or equivocal evidence to support their efficacy. Conclusions: Further research is essential to develop novel, safe, and effective minimally invasive PD treatment options. This work is ongoing, with the promise of specific, targeted, and highly effective therapies on the horizon.
  4,258 243 -
EDITORIAL
The revised guidelines of the Medical Council of India for academic promotions: Need for a rethink
Rakesh Aggarwal, Nithya Gogtay, Rajeev Kumar, Peush Sahni,
January-March 2016, 32(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173117  PMID:26941486
  3,583 335 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns in children with urinary tract infection: A prospective study from a tertiary care center
Ranjana Badhan, Dig Vijay Singh, Lashkari R Badhan, Anureet Kaur
January-March 2016, 32(1):50-56
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173118  PMID:26941495
Introduction: Development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for the development of community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) guidelines, especially for sub-urban and rural areas where empirical treatment is the mainstay in the absence of proper diagnostic modalities. Our aim was to evaluate the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns in children with UTI prospectively from a tertiary care center. Methods: A total of 800 children up to 18 years of age with suspected UTI attending our center were included. For all suspected cases urine microscopy, gram staining, and culture were done. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed on selected antimicrobials using disk diffusion method following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Majority of pathogens were isolated from female (54.2%) patients. Pre-teens (52.1%) and teens (27.1%) were most commonly affected age group. The most common presentation in culture-proven UTI was fever with urinary symptoms (33.3%). In a group of 192 patients 26.7% had proven UTI. Escherichia coli (42.3%) was the most common aetiological agent, followed by Enterococcus fecalis (13.5%), Klebsiella spp. (11.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%). Most active antibiotics against Gram-negative isolates were nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, and amikacin. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, and novobiocin. Conclusion: E. coli was the commonest isolate. The organisms grown in significant numbers were E. fecalis, Klebsiella spp. and S. aureus, causing UTI in 0–18 years of age group. Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, amikacin, and cefotaxime. Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin, cotrimoxazole, and novobiocin. Prospective, regional studies are ensured periodically to explain bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns to be applicable for children with UTI over that geographic area.
  3,632 166 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Innovations in surgical management of nonobstructive azoospermia
Renzhong Ran, Taylor Poteet Kohn, Ranjith Ramasamy
January-March 2016, 32(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173103  PMID:26941489
Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) technique and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection are breakthrough fertility treatments for men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Newer advances such as the microdissection-TESE (micro-TESE) technique have continued to build upon past success by improving sperm retrieval and minimizing the postoperative complications compared to TESE. However, even with micro-TESE, sperm retrieval success has ranged from 40% to 60% due to the technique's dependence on surgeon and embryologist experience. While postoperative complications are minimal relative to the traditional TESE technique, testicular tissue must still be extracted without the knowledge of whether sperm are present in biopsies. In this review, we discuss the innovations in the surgical management of men with NOA and describe the novel experimental approaches that can improve sperm retrieval success.
  3,330 261 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study
Maneesh Sinha, Pramod Krishnappa, Santosh Kumar Subudhi, Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy
January-March 2016, 32(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173121  PMID:26941494
Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization.
  2,733 180 -
Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes
N Kathiresan, Anand Raja, Krishna Kumar Ramachandran, Shirley Sundersingh
January-March 2016, 32(1):57-60
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173111  PMID:26941496
Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients.
  2,327 142 -
Outcomes following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in postchemotherapy residual masses in advanced testicular germ cell tumors
Prabhjot Singh, Siddharth Yadav, Sanjay Mahapatra, Amlesh Seth
January-March 2016, 32(1):40-44
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173102  PMID:26941493
Introduction: We aimed to study the outcomes of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in postchemotherapy residual masses in advanced testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) in the Indian population. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 35 patients who underwent postchemotherapy RPLND at our institute after primary (29 patients) or salvage (6 patients) chemotherapy over a period of 9 years (June 2003 to July 2012). Results: The mean age of our patients was 26.8 years. 18 (51.42%) presented with primary tumor in the right testis and 3 (8.51%) had bilateral tumors. Mixed GCT was the most common histology among 19 (54.3%) patients. 14 (40%) patients had the residual mass in para-aortic location, which was the most common site. 14 (40%) patients required an adjunctive procedure, most commonly nephrectomy which was required in 9 out of 14 (25.7%). We recorded 25 complications, mostly Clavien-Dindo grade II. Histopathology of residual mass was necrosis in 17 (48.57%), teratoma in 12 (34.28%), and viable tumor in 6 (17.14%) patients. Conclusion: Nearly half of the patients had either teratoma or viable tumor, thus justifying the surgical resection of postchemotherapy residual mass. Although nearly half of the patients had complications, they were adequately managed and there was no mortality. Thus, postchemotherapy RPLND can be a useful procedure in multimodality approach to GCT in carefully selected patients.
  2,071 114 -
Variations in renal morphometry: A hospital-based Indian study
Ranjeet S Rathore, Nisarg Mehta, Biju S Pillai, Mohan P Sam, Binu Upendran, H Krishnamoorthy
January-March 2016, 32(1):61-64
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173115  PMID:26941497
Introduction: The currently available standard renal nomograms for comparison of renal dimensions in India are based on the measurements made in the Western population. The objectives of our study were to identify variations in renal morphometric parameters in subjects with no known renal disease in a hospital-based Indian population and to find out any correlation between renal volumes with split renal functions and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-one subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) scan for various purposes, including donor nephrectomy, from June 2012 to August 2014 were included in the study. The renal and ureteral dimensions were assessed from the contrast-enhanced CT scan images of these patients. Results: The mean length, width, thickness and volume of the left kidney were 11.02 ± 1.13 cm, 5.21 ± 0.75 cm, 4.65 ± 0.84 cm and 138.22 ± 29.81 mL, respectively, and those for the right kidney were 10.86 ± 1.12 cm, 5.13 ± 0.77 cm, 4.73 ± 0.95 cm and 137.54 ± 34.48 mL, respectively. The mean length of the left ureter was 23.51 ± 1.48 cm and that of the right ureter was 23.24 ± 1.93 cm. The mean volume of the kidneys in males and females was also different. The volume of the kidney did not statically correlate with the split glomerular filtration rate ((P = 0.12) and BMI (P = 0.52)). Conclusions: Our study revealed that there exist differences in various morphometric parameters of the kidney and ureter in different subsets of the Indian population attending our hospital as compared with the standard values quoted in the world literature.
  1,898 90 -
UROLOGICAL IMAGES
Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney
Subbarao Chodisetti, Yogesh Boddepalli, Malakondareddy Kota
January-March 2016, 32(1):81-82
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173119  PMID:26941503
Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female.
  1,922 59 -
CASE REPORTS
Vesicocutaneous fistula after sliding hernia repair
Varun Mittal, Rakesh Kapoor, Sanjoy Sureka
January-March 2016, 32(1):77-78
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173120  PMID:26941501
Sliding inguinal hernias are usually direct inguinal hernias containing various abdominal viscera. The incidence of bladder forming a part of an inguinal hernia, called as “scrotal cystocele,” is 1–4%. The risk of bladder injury is as high as 12% when repairing this type of hernia. This case report emphasizes this aspect in a 65-year-old man who presented with urinary leak through the scrotal wound following right inguinal hernia repair.
  1,905 68 -
A double J stent misplaced in the inferior vena cava during Boari flap repair
Pankaj N Maheshwari, Ajay T Oswal, Vinayak G Wagaskar
January-March 2016, 32(1):71-73
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173113  PMID:26941499
A 30-year-old lady underwent a Boari flap repair for post-hysterectomy mid-ureteric stricture. The upper end of the double J stent inserted during the procedure was misplaced in the supra-renal inferior venal cava. Cystoscopic stent removal could be performed uneventfully, while the stricture was managed by endoureterotomy.
  1,797 90 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study
Essam ElDin S Moursy, Mohammed Z Eldahshoursy, Wael M Gamal, Abdelbasset A Badawy
January-March 2016, 32(1):65-70
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173112  PMID:26941498
Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes.
  1,799 64 -
CASE REPORTS
Can deceased donor with recurrent primary brain tumor donate kidneys for transplantation?
Suresh Kumar, Pranjal R Modi, Bipin C Pal, Jayesh Modi
January-March 2016, 32(1):74-76
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173104  PMID:26941500
Kidney transplantation from deceased donors is in its infancy in India. Cadaver organ donation was accepted legally in 1994 by the “Human Organs Transplantation Act.” Marginal donors are now accepted by many centers for kidney transplantation. We report a case of procurement of both kidneys from a young deceased donor having recurrent primary brain tumor, transplanted into two adult recipients with successful outcome.
  1,723 63 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Changing paradigm of men's health
Mohit Khera
January-March 2016, 32(1):5-5
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173114  PMID:26941487
  1,684 71 -
UROLOGICAL IMAGES
Transitional cell carcinoma: A rare development in congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction kidney
Pawan Vasudeva, Niraj Kumar, Anup Kumar
January-March 2016, 32(1):79-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173106  PMID:26941502
A 54-year-old male chronic smoker presented with hematuria 13 years after being diagnosed with an asymptomatic left non-functioning kidney secondary to congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction. On evaluation, he was diagnosed with renal collecting system mass occupying the lower pole region, for which radical nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision and nodal dissection was carried out. Histopathology revealed upper tract transitional cell carcinoma.
  1,587 55 -
IJU AWARDS, 2014
IJU Awards 2015

January-March 2016, 32(1):85-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173116  
  1,370 98 -
UROSCAN
Medical expulsive therapy SUSPENDed
Ananda Kumar Dhanasekaran
January-March 2016, 32(1):83-84
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.173109  
  1,265 130 -
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