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   2015| April-June  | Volume 31 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 1, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Penile anthropometry in North Indian children
Amilal Bhat, Ravi Upadhyay, Mahakshit Bhat, Karamveer Sabharwal, Manish Singla, Vinay Kumar
April-June 2015, 31(2):106-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152917  PMID:25878409
Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child's penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years) were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14) to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student's t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children.
  15,500 138 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Adrenal myelolipoma: Controversies in its management
Vasanth G Shenoy, Anuroop Thota, Ravi Shankar, Mallikarjun G Desai
April-June 2015, 31(2):94-101
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152807  PMID:25878407
Adrenal myelolipomas (AMLs) are rare, benign neoplasms of the adrenal gland with varied clinical presentations. The rarity of these tumors precludes any case-controlled or randomized study into their management. The available literature is limited to case reports and short series from referral centers. This review is an effort to put the available literature into perspective such that clinical decision making can be done with some clarity. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched with key words Adrenal Myelolipoma, Adrenal Incidentaloma (AI) and Adrenal Collision Tumor (ACT). From over 1300 search results, 547 relevant publications dating from 1954 to 2014 were reviewed. Details of about 1231 AMLs in the indexed literature were analyzed. Increasing usage of imaging studies has significantly increased the discovery of AMLs. Although AMLs are benign tumors, those measuring larger than 6 cm are prone to rupture and hemorrhage. Thorough endocrine work-up may benefit a selected group of patients, especially those who are hypertensive, diabetic/pre-diabetic, young patients (<50 years) and those with bilateral AML. Regular observation is needed for AML patients who are being treated non-operatively, as many of them may require surgery during follow-up. Although the AACE/AAES guidelines for AI (2009) exclude AML from mandatory metabolic work-up for a newly discovered AI, we feel that a significant number of patients with AML would benefit from metabolic work-up. In the literature, endocrine dysfunction in AML is 7% as compared with 11% in AI. Endocrine dysfunction in AML is probably underdiagnosed.
  5,184 233 -
Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update
Nannan Thirumavalavan, Nathan A Wilken, Ranjith Ramasamy
April-June 2015, 31(2):89-93
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.154297  PMID:25878406
The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.
  3,780 172 -
TECHNOLOGY UPDATE
Urovision 2020: The future of urology
Vivek Venkatramani
April-June 2015, 31(2):150-155
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152918  PMID:25878422
Urology, as a specialty, has always been at the forefront of innovation and research. Newer technologies have been rapidly embraced and, in many cases, improved upon in order to achieve better patient outcomes. This review addresses the possible future directions that technological advances in urology may take. The role of further miniaturization of urolithiasis treatment, robotic surgery and other minimally invasive techniques is addressed. The potential for enhanced imaging and diagnostic techniques like magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography modifications, as well as the potential applications of nanotechnology and tissue engineering, are reviewed. This article is based on the Dr. Sitharaman Best Essay award of the Urological Society of India for 2013.
  3,652 180 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diuresis and inversion therapy to improve clearance of lower caliceal stones after shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical study
Abul-fotouh Ahmed, Essam Shalaby, Aref Maarouf, Yasser Badran, Mahmoud Eladl, Ammar Ghobish
April-June 2015, 31(2):125-131
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152813  PMID:25878414
Objective: To improve the clearance of lower caliceal stones (LCSs) after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of intra-operative forced diuresis and inversion therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven consecutive patients with symptomatic, single LCSs of 5-20 mm size were prospectively randomized into two groups. The first (study group, SG) underwent SWL at the time of the maximum diuresis with the patient in the Trendelenburg position with an angle of 30 degree, while the second group (control group, CG) underwent standard SWL. After the last SWL session, patients were followed-up regularly using plain abdominal X-ray and renal ultrasound. The primary endpoint of the study was the stone-free rate (SFR) at 12 weeks. Results: A total of 141 patients completed the study treatment protocol and follow-up: 69 patients in SG and 72 patients in CG. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. SG showed significantly higher SFR at all follow-up time points. At week 12, 78.3% of SG were rendered stone free, whereas only 61.1% were stone free in CG (P = 0.030). Also, there was a significantly higher SFR for larger stones (>10 mm) and stones with higher attenuation value (>500 Hounsfield units) in SG than CG. Mild non-significant complications were reported in both groups. Conclusion: SWL with intraoperative forced diuresis and inversion seems to be an effective measure with minimal extra cost to improve LCS clearance post-SWL.
  3,679 136 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Partial nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Where do we stand?
Mohammed Shahait, Deborah Mukherji, Yaser El-Hout
April-June 2015, 31(2):102-105
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.154300  PMID:25878408
Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) offers comparable oncologic results, but a lower risk of chronic kidney disease, when compared with radical nephrectomy. However, there are limited data in the literature examining the safety of NSS in the setting of metastatic RCC. To evaluate the feasibility of NSS and impact on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with metastatic disease, we performed a systematic review of the literature. There is ample evidence that NSS is feasible in metastatic RCC, with comparable results in terms of CSS compared with radical cytoreductive nephrectomy.
  3,590 185 -
SURGICAL CRAFT
Use of a vegetable model as a training tool for PCNL puncture
Maneesh Sinha, Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy
April-June 2015, 31(2):156-159
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152922  PMID:25878423
Introduction: Training residents to perform a PCNL puncture is hampered by the non-availability of a good inanimate model that can be used for demonstration and practice. The ethics of surgical training during actual surgeries is being questioned and the role of simulation is increasingly important. Virtual reality trainers, however, are prohibitively expensive and the use of animal models is fraught with regulatory and ethical concerns. We have devised a model that can be used to teach the concept of depth perception during a PCNL puncture. Methods: A bottle gourd was used to mimic the posterior abdominal wall. Cotton pledgets dipped in intravenous contrast were fitted into 4 mm holes made at staggered levels in the bottle gourd which was strapped onto the operating table with the cotton pledgets facing away from the surgeon. Surgeons with varying degrees of experience made fluoroscopy-guided punctures onto the cotton pledgets. We recorded the time taken for puncture in seconds and the distance of the needle exit site from the center of the cotton ball. Speed was measured by recording the fluoroscopy time in seconds on the C-arm. Accuracy was documented by using a Vernier caliper to measure the distance from the edge of the target to the actual puncture. One second of fluoroscopy time and 0.1 mm distance were each given one point. The total points accumulated over a set of 10 punctures was added to give a total score. Longer fluoroscopy times and inaccurate punctures resulted in higher scores. Results: A surgeon with more than 1000 PCNLs to his credit had a score of 99. The average score of five residents was 555. Conclusion: The bottle gourd model provides an ethically acceptable, inexpensive, easy to replicate model that can be used to train residents in the PCNL puncture.
  3,518 178 -
CASE REPORTS
Primary squamous cell carcinoma of bladder exstrophy in an adult
Suresh Bhat, Manjunatha Sathyanarayanaprasad, Fredrick Paul
April-June 2015, 31(2):142-143
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152920  PMID:25878418
Exstrophy of the urinary bladder is a rare congential anomaly. The most common malignancy is an adenocarcinoma in these patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurring in these patients is uncommon and usually has a bad prognosis. The management of these patients is challenging and may require extensive reconstructive procedures. We report a case of SCC in a corrected bladder exstrophy patient who presented with an ulcerated mass in the lower abdomen extending to the base of the penis. Six months after extensive radical ablative surgery with reconstruction of the abdominal wall, the patient remained free of recurrence.
  3,607 61 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Inhibition of proliferation and migration of stricture fibroblasts by epithelial cell-conditioned media
Nilima Nath, Sumit K Saraswat, Shashank Jain, Sridhar Koteshwar
April-June 2015, 31(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152809  PMID:25878411
Introduction: Urethral stricture is characterized by urethral lumen narrowing due to fibrosis. Urethroplasty of the urethral stricture involves excision of scar, and may be followed by reconstruction of the urethra using split-thickness skin, buccal mucosa, urethral mucosa or, more recently, tissue-engineered grafts. The stricture wound healing process after urethroplasty is known to be mediated by an interaction between keratinocyte and fibroblasts; however, the underlying mechanisms are not studied in detail yet. We investigated the influence of epithelial cell-conditioned medium (ECCM) (obtained from confluent penile skin, buccal mucosa and urethral cell cultures) on the proliferation and migration of stricture fibroblasts using an in vitro scratch assay. Materials and Methods: ECCM was collected from confluent primary epithelial cell cultures of three different human biopsies (penile skin, buccal mucosa and urethral mucosa), whereas stricture fibroblasts were isolated from human urethral stricture biopsies. The effect of ECCM on stricture fibroblasts' proliferation and migration into the scratch was observed using a standard in vitro scratch assay over a period of 3 days. Four experiments were performed independently using four stricture fibroblasts from four patients and ECCM was collected from 12 different patients' primary cell cultures. Results: ECCM from primary epithelial cells cultures obtained from penile skin, buccal mucosa and urethra inhibited stricture fibroblasts' proliferation and migration in the in vitro scratch assay. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the ability of ECCM to inhibit the proliferation and migration of stricture fibroblasts and present it as an effective adjunct in urethroplasty, which may influence stricture wound healing and inhibit the recurrence of stricture.
  3,475 67 -
Role of buprenorphine in prolonging the duration of post-operative analgesia in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison between bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and buprenorphine combination
Jonnavithula Nirmala, Anil Kumar, Rahul Devraj, Sriramoju Vidyasagar, Gunta Ramachandraiah, Pisapati V. L. N. Murthy
April-June 2015, 31(2):132-135
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152815  PMID:25878415
Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment of choice for large renal calculi. Pain around the nephrostomy tube is a clinical problem and we have previously reported alleviation of pain by peritubal block with bupivacaine, which lasted for 14 hours. The present study aimed to investigate the role of buprenorphine and bupivacaine combination in prolonging the duration of analgesia in peritubal block. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken in 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade I and II patients who were scheduled for PCNL. Group I patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine and group II patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg of buprenorphine. Peritubal infiltration was given under fluoroscopic guidance along the nephrostomy tube from the renal capsule to the skin. Post-operative pain was assessed by Visual Analog Score (VAS), dynamic VAS (DVAS), sedation score, duration of analgesia and number of rescue analgesic demands. Rescue analgesia was inj tramadol 1 mg/kg IV if pain score exceeded 3. Results: Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Median duration of analgesia was 16 h in group I and 20 h in group II (P = 0.002). The maximum median VAS was 4 in group I and 2 in group II (P = 0.002). The median area under curve (AUC) for VAS was 7 and 5 in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.047). The median maximum DVAS in group I was 6 and 4 in group II. The median AUC for DVAS in 24 h was 16 in group I and 15 in group II (P = 0.017). Conclusions: Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg buprenorphine around a nephrostomy tube increased the duration of analgesia following PCNL without any side-effects.
  3,408 90 -
Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?
Onur Telli, Hasmet Sarici, Mucahit Kabar, Berat Cem Ozgur, Berkan Resorlu, Selen Bozkurt
April-June 2015, 31(2):116-119
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152811  PMID:25878412
Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 10 6 to 30.7 × 10 6 , 5.4 × 10 6 /ml to 14.3 × 10 6 /ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI.
  3,367 75 -
Effect of midurethral sling (transobturator tape) surgery on female sexual function
Fredrick Paul, Sajeesh Rajagopalan, Siddalingeshwar C Doddamani, Remeshbabu Mottemmal, Sachin Joseph, Suresh Bhat
April-June 2015, 31(2):120-124
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152812  PMID:25878413
Introduction: Transobturator tapes (TOT) are frequently used in the management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). We evaluated the effect of TOT on sexual function in Indian women with stress urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: 34 sexually active women (mean age 42.38 years) with SUI were evaluated before TOT placement for sexual function using the NSF-9 sexual scoring system questionnaire. The evaluation was repeated at the 3 rd , 6 th and 12 th months post surgery and then yearly. Results: There was significant improvement in scores in all domains of sexual function post-surgery. The frequency improved in 24 (70.5%) patients, lubricacy improved in 12 (57.1%) patients, orgasm improved in 21 (67.1%) patients, pain improved in 14 (70%) patients and, in leaking patients, sexual satisfaction improved in 85.7% while in non-leaking patients improvement was seen in 40%. Sexual relation was not satisfactory in 26 (76.4%) of the patients before surgery; of them, 21 (80%) patients had improved sexual satisfaction after surgery. De novo urgency and dyspareunia developed in one and two patients, respectively. Conclusions: The TOT procedure has no significant negative impact on sexual function and it significantly improves female sexual function and overall sexual satisfaction in majority of the patients with SUI.
  3,237 86 -
EDITORIAL
Tissue engineering and stem cell research in Urology: Is the moment yet to come?
Arabind Panda
April-June 2015, 31(2):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.154293  PMID:25878405
  3,118 148 -
URORADIOLOGY
Localized renal cystic disease
Ramakrishna Narayanan, Balasubramanyam Shankar, Chaitanya D Kulkarni
April-June 2015, 31(2):146-147
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152923  PMID:25878420
Localized renal cystic disease (LRCD) is a rare benign non-hereditary, non-progressive condition which must be differentiated from other renal cystic diseases. Familiarity with this condition and its characteristic imaging features avoids unnecessary surgical intervention. We report a case of LRCD in a 40-year-old male who presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography demonstrated a cluster of simple cysts in the lower pole of the left kidney with normal right kidney and other organs. Diagnosis of LRCD was made on typical imaging characteristics and absence of family history of cystic renal disease.
  3,098 66 -
CASE REPORTS
Pseudohyperplastic variant of adenocarcinoma as a component of α-methyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR negative) carcinosarcoma of the prostate
Sharmila Dudani, Ajay Malik, AS Sandhu, NS Mani
April-June 2015, 31(2):136-138
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152921  PMID:25878416
Carcinosarcoma (CS) or Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate is a very rare malignant tumor of the prostate having an aggressive clinical course and dismal prognosis. The adenocarcinomatous element is usually of the acinar type and closely admixed with a sarcomatous component. We report a case of α-methyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR)-negative pseudohyperplastic variant of adenocarcinoma in CS. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published case reports of this variant in CS till date. An accurate diagnosis is essential as this uncommon, aggressive cancer has limited therapeutic options
  2,966 55 -
Minimal invasive treatment of benign anastomotic uretero-ileal stricture in Hautmann neobladder with thermoexpandable ureteral metal stent
Ioannis P Efthimiou, Orestis T Porfyris, Paraskevas I Kalomoiris
April-June 2015, 31(2):139-141
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152919  PMID:25878417
Technical challenges and increased morbidity of open reconstruction for uretero-ileal strictures have led to a search for minimal invasive treatments as an alternative solution. The insertion of a thermo-expandable ureteral Memokath 051 ® metal stent across benign uretero-ileal anastomotic stricture in orthotopic neobladder has not been described in the English literature. Herein, we describe a case of a woman with a Hautmann neobladder and a 3.5 cm benign stricture of the right uretero-ileal anastomosis that was treated with insertion of a thermo-expandable ureteral Memokath 051 ® metal stent.
  2,966 45 -
UROPATHOLOGY SECTION
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with colesional actinomycosis in a 63-year-old man
Hanni V Gulwani
April-June 2015, 31(2):144-145
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152925  PMID:25878419
Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon chronic destructive granulomatous disease of the kidney. A rare case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with extrarenal extension that had coexistence of renal actinomycosis is described in this article.
  2,800 49 -
VIDEO
The transobturator outside in suburethral sling insertion procedure
Sivakumar S Balakrishnan, Anil K Dass, Yiap L Tan
April-June 2015, 31(2):160-161
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.154223  PMID:25878424
This video describes the transobturator outside in suburethral sling surgical procedure for the indication of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. A total of 170 cases were performed from January 2007 till December 2013. The average follow up was from 6 months till 7 years. The cure rate was 90%. There were no recurrences in our series. There was one patient with tape exposure after 3 years which required excision.
  2,720 75 -
URORADIOLOGY
Renal pyelic fusion anomaly
Suresh Bhat, Fredrick Paul, Siddalingeshwar C Doddamani
April-June 2015, 31(2):148-149
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.152924  PMID:25878421
Renal pyelic fusion anomalies are rare and detected incidentally on imaging. Most cases of pyelic fusion anomalies reported are in patients with horseshoe kidney. We report a rare case of pyelic fusion anomaly in normally located kidneys, which has not been reported so far.
  2,733 58 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Commentary on Bhat A., Upadhyay R., et al. Penile anthropometry in north Indian children. Indian J Urol 32;106-10
Apul Goel
April-June 2015, 31(2):110-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.154222  PMID:25878410
  2,536 63 -
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