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   2013| January-March  | Volume 29 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 3, 2013

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Penile tuberculosis following intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy
Anadi Roy Chowdhury, Ranjan Kumar Dey
January-March 2013, 29(1):64-66
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109989  PMID:23671370
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an effective treatment for patients with superficial bladder cancer and bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS). It may cause side effects usually due to local and systemic inflammatory effects. We report a case of a male patient with non-invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder (Stage T1) who developed caseating granulomas on his glans penis as a complication of intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Though there are other reported cases of BCG dissemination noted in the literature, penile granuloma is rare. The first reported case was published in 1992 and since then only eleven cases are reported. It appears that both direct infectious processes and hypersensitivity reactions contribute to the clinical manifestations of a systemic BCG infection. Our case possibly represents a local infection of M bovis involving the glans penis.
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Penile lesion with inguinal adenopathy after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation therapy
Guven Aslan, Can Sevinc, Burcin Tuna, Sermin Ozkal, Kutsal Yorukoglu
January-March 2013, 29(1):70-72
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109991  PMID:23671372
Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. BCG is generally well tolerated, though localized and systemic infectious complications may occur. Infection of the glans and inguinal adenopathy are rare local complications of intravesical BCG therapy. Traumatic urethral catheterization is one of the main causes. We report the case of a 75-year-old male who developed granulomatous balanitis and enlarged inguinal lymph nodes after five cycles of intravesical BCG treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Histology revealed giant cell granuloma. Oral antituberculous treatment was initiated with subsequent full recovery of penile lesions and adenopathy. Physicians who administer BCG must be familiar with the possible complications and their adequate management and should inform patients about the side-effects accordingly.
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Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty: A single surgeon concurrent cohort review
Rajeev Kumar, Brusabhanu Nayak
January-March 2013, 29(1):19-21
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109978  PMID:23671359
Introduction: The increasing availability of robotic devices has led to an increase in their use for procedures such as pyeloplasty, which have been conventionally performed laparoscopically or through open surgery. We perform both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted pyeloplasty routinely and have compared these techniques in a set of concurrent cohorts, operated by the same surgeon. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of all cases of Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) and conventional laparoscopic pyeloplasty (CLP) performed by a single surgeon, from September 2006 to July 2010. The choice of procedure depended upon the availability of the robot on the given day. A lateral transperitoneal approach was used in all cases. All anastomoses were stented antegrade. A diuretic renogram was obtained in all patients between six to twelve weeks after stent removal. Success was defined as a resolution of symptoms with non-obstructive outflow on the renogram. Results: Thirty patients underwent 31 laparoscopic pyeloplasties (20 RALPs and 11 CLPs), with one patient undergoing bilateral simultaneous robotic procedures. The robotic procedures were superior in terms of shorter operating time by 20 minutes on an average. Furthermore, 35% of the robotic procedures were performed in under 90 minutes, while the minimum time taken for laparoscopy was 110 minutes. All procedures in both cohorts were successful with no complications in either group. The surgeon recorded subjective ergonomic benefits with the use of the robot. Conclusions: Robotic assistance helps decrease the operative time for laparoscopic pyeloplasty. It seems ergonomically superior for the surgeon, allowing multiple procedures in the same list. These may be important benefits in busy centers.
  2 3,673 89
Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Indian women: A hospital-based survey
Uma Singh, Pragati Agarwal, Manju Lata Verma, Diwakar Dalela, Nisha Singh, Pushplata Shankhwar
January-March 2013, 29(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109981  PMID:23671362
Background and Objectives: Urinary incontinence is a problem that creates both physical and psychological nuisance to a woman. This problem needs to be studied in detail in Indian population because of lack of precise data. The objectives of this study were to study the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Indian women. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted from August 2005 to June 2007 included women attending gynecology OPD (consulters) and hospital employees (nonconsulters). Subjects who were incontinent were asked a standard set of questions. Incontinence was classified as urge, stress, or mixed based on symptoms. A univariate followed by multivariate analysis was done to look for risk factors. Results: Of 3000 women enrolled, 21.8% (656/3000) women were incontinent. There was no significant difference in incontinence rate between consulters and nonconsulters [618/2804 (22.1%) vs. 38/196 (19.4%); P value = 0.6). Of the total women having incontinence, highest numbers were found to have stress incontinence [73.8% (484/656)] followed by mixed [16.8% (110/656)] and urge incontinence [9.5% (62/656)]. Age more than 40 years; multiparity; postmenopausal status; body mass index more than 25; history of diabetes and asthma; and habit of taking tea, tobacco, pan, and betel are risk factors found to be associated with increased prevalence of urinary incontinence in univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age more than 40 years, multiparity, vaginal delivery, hysterectomy, menopause, tea and tobacco intake, and asthma were found to be significantly associated with overall incontinence. Stress incontinence was separately not associated with menopause. Urge incontinence was not associated with vaginal delivery. Conclusion: Urinary incontinence is a bothersome problem for women. Simple questionnaire can help to detect this problem and diagnose associated risk factors, so that necessary steps can be taken in its prevention and treatment.
  2 7,163 208
Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphism of TLR-4 gene in patients with prostate cancer from North India
Anjali Priyadarshini, Anuradha Chakraborti, Arup K Mandal, Shrawan K Singh
January-March 2013, 29(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109982  PMID:23671363
Background: The etiological factors associated with prostate cancer (CaP) have not been completely understood as yet. Genetic predisposition and inflammation is fast emerging as risk factors for CaP is a key player in the innate immune response and plays role in immune- surveillance and inflammation. The present study was conducted to evaluate TLR-4 gene polymorphism in patients with CaP. Material and Methods: DNA was isolated from blood samples of 198 patients with CaP, 200 cases of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and 119 controls. TLR-4 gene polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile were determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique using Nco1 and Hinf 1 restriction enzymes. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS for windows, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) Results: A significantly high proportion of patients with CaP had AG genotype (16.6%) as compared to control (4.2%) [OR-4.4, 95% CI (1.57-13.26), P =0.0013] with respect to Asp299Gly single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). AA genotype showed a protective effect towards CaP development [OR-0.39, 95% CI (0.18-0.83), P=0.007). A trend was observed towards development of BPH with respect to AG genotype (P=0.06). Thr399Ile SNP was not significantly different among the population groups studied. Conclusions: This finding highlights the genetic predispositions to CaP with respect to TLR-4 gene. Individuals with Asp299Gly polymorphism having AG genotype appear to have four fold higher risk for development of Prostate cancer
  2 2,367 100
The use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome
Bogdan Orasanu, Sangeeta T Mahajan
January-March 2013, 29(1):2-11
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109975  PMID:23671356
Over the last 50 years, botulinum toxin has been transformed from a cause of life-threatening disease to an effective medical therapy. It has been used in a variety of specialties for different indications, significantly improving patient quality of life. A recent growing body of evidence suggests that intra-detrusor injection of botulinum toxin may have beneficial effects in patients with medication refractory detrusor overactivity and may offer a new minimally invasive alternative to patients with severe overactive bladder symptoms. To review current data regarding the effects of botulinum toxin in patients with overactive bladder, a MEDLINE® /PubMed® literature search was carried out. The mechanism of action, clinical usage, adverse effects, and treatment efficacy were reviewed and the results are presented in this paper.
  2 4,844 222
Nutcracker phenomenon: An unusual presentation of acute aortic dissection
Koichi Kodama, Toru Noda, Isamu Motoi
January-March 2013, 29(1):67-69
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109990  PMID:23671371
We report a case of acute aortic dissection leading to compression of the left renal vein (LRV), thereby resulting in the nutcracker phenomenon. A 49-year-old previously healthy woman presented with intermittent gross hematuria and mild left flank pain of five days' duration. Laboratory examinations were within normal limits, except for the elevated C-reactive protein. Cystoscopy revealed bleeding from the left ureteral orifice. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated acute Type B aortic dissection and compression of LRV between the enlarged aorta and superior mesenteric artery with an associated dilatation of the left gonadal vein as a collateral circulation.
  1 2,343 30
Penile nodule with inguinal lymphadenopathy: Prostatic adenocarcinoma masquerading as penile cancer
Bastab Ghosh, LN Dorairajan, Santosh Kumar, Debdutta Basu
January-March 2013, 29(1):56-58
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109986  PMID:23671367
Although anatomically the penis is closely related to the prostate, penile metastasis from prostate cancer is an uncommon phenomenon. These patients usually present late in the course of the disease with wide spread metastasis. We report a patient who presented with a penile mass and inguinal lymphadenopathy. He was clinically diagnosed as a case of penile cancer but the penile mass as well as the inguinal lymphadenopathy was subsequently diagnosed to be metastases from carcinoma of the prostate.
  1 3,456 41
Laparoscopic Palanivelu-hydatid-system aided management of retrovesical hydatid cyst
Bala Subramaniam, Nitin Abrol, Rajeev Kumar
January-March 2013, 29(1):59-60
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109987  PMID:23671368
Hydatid cysts of the retrovesical region are rare. They are often adherent to the adjacent bowel and bladder, and complete removal is associated with potential injuries. The Palanivelu hydatid system allows minimally invasive treatment of hydatid cysts with no adjacent organ injuries. We describe the laparoscopic management of a pelvic hydatid cyst using this system.
  1 2,170 47
Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic bladder perforation during transurethral bladder tumor resection: Case report and literature review
Florian May, Boris Schlenker, Bernhard Hofer, Christian G Stief, Horst-Guenter Rau
January-March 2013, 29(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109988  PMID:23671369
An intraperitoneal bladder perforation occurred during transurethral tumor resection under general anesthesia in a 82 year old woman. The bladder was repaired with a laparoscopic closure and an indwelling urethral catheter. The histopathology revealed T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma. The patient recovered well and was discharged home on postoperative day 7. This case highlights the successful use of laparoscopy in the treatment of a rare urological complication.
  1 2,811 36
The impact of color Doppler ultrasound on treatment patterns of epididymitis in a university-based healthcare system
Ryan P Smith, Chad R Tracy, Parviz K Kavoussi, Matthew T Witmer, Raymond A Costabile
January-March 2013, 29(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109979  PMID:23671360
Introduction and Objectives: Evaluate the impact of scrotal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) on epididymitis treatment patterns in a university-based institution. Materials and Methods: From 1 January 1999 to 30 July 2005, 870 patients from a single institution were diagnosed with epididymitis. A total of 480 men met the inclusion criteria for acute epididymitis. Scrotal ultrasound was included as a part of the diagnostic evaluation in 42.7% of men. Ultrasound reports were available for review in 187 cases. Information regarding patient demographics, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment was reviewed. Results: Ultrasound findings consistent with epididymitis were identified in 69.3% of men. The four most commonly reported irregularities were scrotal wall thickening (84.2%), abnormal epididymal echotexture (74%), increased epididymal vascularity (72.9%), and an enlarged epididymis (71.5%). Scrotal ultrasound was performed in 67% men under age 20 compared to 36% men between ages 30 and 69. Patients presenting to the Emergency Department underwent sonographic evaluation 57% of the time versus 17.2% men presenting to primary care physicians (P < 0.001). Ninety-five per cent (194/204) of patients who underwent CDUS were treated with antibiotics compared to 96% (263/275) of those who did not receive an ultrasound (P = 0.78). Conclusions: CDUS can be helpful in patients with a potential diagnosis of testicular torsion, however, the use of CDUS as a diagnostic adjunct in the evaluation of epididymitis is of limited value. Treatment patterns and antibiotic usage were not significantly altered by ultrasound findings at this institution.
  1 3,120 52
Is urethral stricture only a circumferential disease? Reason for change in the plan of urethroplasty for bulbous urethral strictures shorter than 2 cm
Apul Goel, Anuj Goel, Satya Narain Sankhwar
January-March 2013, 29(1):27-30
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109980  PMID:23671361
Objective: To understand the reasons for choosing the type of urethroplasty for bulbous strictures shorter than 2 cm in length that were ideally suited for anastomotic urethroplasty (AU). Materials and Methods: Data of adult men, who underwent urethroplasty between November 2002 and September 2011 for isolated bulbous strictures less than 2 cm in length, as measured intra-operatively, were reviewed. Patients who had undergone urethroplasty before were excluded. Data recorded were details of previous interventions, the etiology of the stricture and the type of urethroplasty performed. Results: Out of 277 men who underwent urethroplasty for bulbous stricture, 65 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The etiologies were trauma in 24, post catheterization in 16, and idiopathic in 25. The mean stricture length was 1.60 cm (range 0.8 to 1.9). Anastomotic urethroplasty was performed in 41 men (Group 1). In the remaining 24 men, buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty was performed in 20 and augmented AU in 4 (Group 2). Comparing the two groups we found that Group 2 patients had undergone more internal urethrotomies (mean 2.45±0.88 vs. 1.58±0.63; P=0.005) and had longer stricture length as compared to men in Group 1 (mean 1.8±0.83 vs. 1.48±0.23 cm; P=0.005). The reason why AU could not be performed (Group 2) was shortening of the length of the urethra, making mobilization difficult. Conclusions: Even short strictures are associated with urethral shortening as the fibrosis is not only circumferential but also longitudinal. The surgeon should be prepared for an alternate plan even for bulbous urethral strictures shorter than 2 cm.
  1 3,680 126
Vascular complication in live related renal transplant: An experience of 1945 cases
Aneesh Srivastava, Jatinder Kumar, Sandeep Sharma, Abhishek , MS Ansari, Rakesh Kapoor
January-March 2013, 29(1):42-47
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109983  PMID:23671364
Introduction and Objective: Among the surgical complications in renal transplantation, the vascular complications are probably most dreaded, dramatic, and likely to cause sudden loss of renal allograft. We present our experience and analysis of the outcome of such complications in a series of 1945 live related renal transplants. Materials and Methods: One thousand nine hundred and forty five consecutive live related renal transplants were evaluated retrospectively for vascular complications. Complications were recorded and analyzed for frequency, time of presentation, clinical presentation, and their management. Results: The age of patients ranged from 6 to 56 years (mean = 42). Vascular complications were found in 25 patients (1.29%). Most common among these was transplant renal artery stenosis found in 11 (0.58%), followed by transplant reznal artery thrombosis in 9 (0.46%), renal vein thrombosis in 3 (0.15%), and aneurysm formation at arterial anastmosis in 2 (0.10%) patient. The time of presentation also varied amongst complications. All cases of arterial thrombosis had sudden onset anuria with minimal or no abdominal discomfort, while venous thrombosis presented as severe oliguria associated with intense graft site pain and tenderness. Management of cases with vascular thrombosis was done by immediate surgical exploration. Two patients of renal artery stenosis were managed with angioplasty and stent placement. Conclusions: Major vascular complications are relatively uncommon after renal transplantation but still constitute an important cause of graft loss in early postoperative period. Aneurysm and vessel thrombosis usually require graft nephrectomy. Transplant renal artery stenosis is amenable to correction by endovascular techniques.
  1 3,849 194
Metanephric stromal tumour: A rare pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm
Seema D Khutti, Ramani P Kumar, Karl Sampath
January-March 2013, 29(1):53-55
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109985  PMID:23671366
A case of incidentally detected Metanephric Stromal Tumour (MST) is reported here. This is a rare, recently recognized pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A review of the English literature revealed only five cases after its original description by Argani et al. Recognition of this entity can spare a child from potentially toxic adjuvant chemotherapy that might be used to treat malignant lesions which are part of the differential diagnosis, particularly clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK).
  - 3,078 51
Laparoscopic management in a rare case of bilateral perirenal lymphangiomatosis
RM Meyyappan, S Ravikumar, M Gopinath
January-March 2013, 29(1):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109992  PMID:23671373
Lymphangiomas are lymphatic malformations commonly seen around the neck, axillary region and the mediastinum. Perirenal lymphangiomatosis is very rare with only a few cases being reported in literature. We present a case of symptomatic perirenal lymphangiomatosis in a female of childbearing age, managed laparoscopically by deroofing and marsupialization.
  - 2,300 44
Recertification: Overhyped or need of the hour
Nitin S Kekre
January-March 2013, 29(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109974  PMID:23671355
  - 2,463 56
Pelvic floor repair
Surajit Bhattacharya
January-March 2013, 29(1):85-85
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.110000  PMID:23671376
  - 1,422 44
An audit of suprapubic catheter insertion performed by a urological nurse specialist
Sam C Zacharia, Maneesh Sinha, Prasanna Matippa, Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy
January-March 2013, 29(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109977  PMID:23671358
Aims: To introduce the concept that a urological Nurse Specialist can perform Suprapubic Catheter (SPC) insertions independently without significant complications, if systematic training is given. Settings and Design: Retrospective study. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of Suprapubic Catheter insertions performed by a Urological Nurse Specialist was conducted between April 2009 and April 2011. Results: Of the total 53 patients, in 49 (92.45%) the procedure was successful. Out of the remaining four, two (3.77%) were done by a urologist. One patient's (1.89 %) SPC did not drain after placement and ultrasonography reported that the Foley balloon was lying within the abdominal wall. The other patient's SPC drained well for a month and failed to drain after the first scheduled change in a month. Since the ultrasonography showed the Foley balloon to be anterior to the distended bladder, an exploration was performed and this revealed that the SPC tract had gone through a fold of peritoneum before reaching the bladder. None had bowel injury. Conclusions: If systematic training is given, a urological Nurse Specialist can perform SPC insertions independently without significant complications.
  - 3,729 94
Single-stage repair of hypospadias using longitudinal dorsal island flap: Single-surgeon experience with 102 cases
V. V. S. Chandrasekharam
January-March 2013, 29(1):48-52
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109984  PMID:23671365
Purpose: There are many techniques of harvesting vascularized skin flaps from penile skin for hypospadias repairs. Here, we review our experience with the use of longitudinal dorsal island flap (LDIF) for mid- and proximal hypospadias repairs and to assess the results and complications of onlay and tubularized repairs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of all children with hypospadias operated by a single surgeon using the LDIF technique. The severity of hypospadias, technique, complications, and follow-up were assessed. Results: Over a 9.4-year period, 102 children (mean age 4.2 years, range 6 months to 11 years) were operated for primary hypospadias using the LDIF technique. All children had poorly formed urethral plates and hence were considered unsuitable for tubularized incised plate repair. The hypospadias was classified as midpenile, proximal penile/penoscrotal or perineal in 29, 64, and 9 children respectively. Onlay LDIF repair was done in 85 children, while in 17 children, tubularized LDIF repair was performed. At a mean follow-up of 1.8 years, complications occurred in 12 (12%) children. Complications were more common after tubularized repairs than onlay repairs (24% vs. 9.5%). All glans dehiscences occurred after onlay repairs, while meatal stenosis and diverticulum occurred after tubularized repairs. No child had urethral stenosis after onlay repair, and uroflow studies in 16 children demonstrated normal curves and flow rates. Conclusions: We report the use of LDIF for single-stage mid and proximal hypospadias repair with good success and an acceptable complication rate. Onlay repairs had fewer complications than tubularized repairs. Our results indicate that the specific advantages and versatility of LDIF make it a good option to consider in cases of hypospadias with poorly developed urethral plates where onlay or substitution urethroplasty is indicated.
  - 5,214 135
The story of the condom
Fahd Khan, Saheel Mukhtar, Ian K Dickinson, Seshadri Sriprasad
January-March 2013, 29(1):12-15
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109976  PMID:23671357
Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20 th and 21 st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.
  - 8,164 210
Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatrics
Jitendra G Nasit, Biren Parikh, Priti Trivedi, Manoj Shah
January-March 2013, 29(1):77-79
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109995  PMID:23671375
Testicular sarcomas constitute only 1-2% of all testicular tumors and are mostly associated with germ cell tumor. Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is rare and only 14 cases have been reported in the literature till date. It should be differentiated from germ cell tumor with sarcomatous component, other intratesticular spindle-cell sarcomas and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Accurate diagnosis and early treatment is essential as it is an aggressive tumor with high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Orchidectomy is the treatment of choice. Chemo-radiotherapy is recommended in case of recurrence and metastasis.
  - 2,278 78
Radiological seminal vesicle stones may actually be in the ureter
Brusabhanu Nayak, Nitin Abrol, Rajeev Kumar
January-March 2013, 29(1):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.109994  PMID:23671374
Calculi in blind-ending ureters are uncommon. We describe a rare case of calculi in the diverticulum of a blind-ending ureter associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis, which masqueraded as seminal vesicle calculi.
  - 3,519 50
Long-term cryopreservation of vestigial muscle cells, as the source of stem cells for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: Is it possible?
Saurabh Sudhir Chipde
January-March 2013, 29(1):80-81
  - 1,307 37
In-situ frozen sections in robotic prostatectomy: An approach to reduce positive surgical margin rates
Praveen Kumar Pandey
January-March 2013, 29(1):81-82
  - 1,737 27
Supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal calculus disease: An underutilized yet useful surgical procedure
Avijit Kumar
January-March 2013, 29(1):83-84
  - 1,349 90
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