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   2012| January-March  | Volume 28 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 12, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Laparoscopic mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy: Our experience in children
Rajendra B Nerli, Mallikarjun Reddy, Shishir Devraju, Vikram Prabha, Murigendra B Hiremath, Sujata Jali
January-March 2012, 28(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94951  
Introduction: The Mitrofanoff principle was originally described as a method to provide an alternative means to access the bladder. It creates a conduit to the bladder through which patients with a sensitive, absent, or traumatized urethra can perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) easily. We report our experience with complete laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy to promote a catheterizable abdominal stoma. Materials and Methods: A 4-port transperitoneal approach was used to create a complete laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. Results: Six children with a mean age of 12.8 years (range 9-16 years) underwent laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. Mean operative time was 139.6 min and Mean estimated blood loss was 46 cc. No cases of urinary leaks were noted. There have been no cases of either stomal stenosis or appendicovesical stenosis noted. Conclusions: Pure laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy is feasible and is associated with reasonable outcome with early recovery, resumption of normal activities and excellent cosmesis.
  3 2,968 69
SYMPOSIUM
Robotic laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: From present to future
Ayhan Verit, Emad Rizkala, Riccardo Autorino, Robert J Stein
January-March 2012, 28(1):76-81
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94962  
The continued effort of improving cosmesis and reducing morbidity in urologic surgery has given rise to novel alternatives to traditional minimally invasive techniques: Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS) and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). Despite the development of specialized access devices and instruments, the performance of complex procedures using LESS has been challenging due to loss of triangulation and instrument clashing. A robotic interface may represent the key factor in overcoming the critical restrictions related to NOTES and LESS. Although encouraging, current clinical evidence related to R-LESS remains limited as the current da Vinci® robotic platform has not been specifically designed for LESS. Robotic innovations are imminent and are likely to govern major changes to the current landscape of scarless surgery.
  3 3,433 113
Is LESS really more?
Joseph A Graversen, Achim Lusch, Jaime Landman
January-March 2012, 28(1):82-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94963  
In the last decade, laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has been touted to be the part of the 'evolution' of minimally invasive surgery. The hope is that reduced access points will ultimately decrease pain, morbidity, convalescence, and improve cosmesis. However, what is unique about LESS is that while laparoscopic literature sought to demonstrate superiority of the technique over that of open surgery, the publications on LESS generally seem to seek to demonstrate equivalence with laparoscopy, with the major focus being on cosmesis. Unfortunately, even in that regard the objective cosmesis data is lacking. Furthermore, patients rate cosmesis the least important of all factors. LESS has also been associated with increased risk of complication, increased surgical cost, and longer operative times. In the current review, an objective assessment of the literature will be used for comparison between current standard laparoscopic techniques and LESS with the hopes of answering the question: is LESS really more?
  3 2,232 126
REVIEW ARTICLES
The role of cannabinoids in prostate cancer: Basic science perspective and potential clinical applications
Juan A Ramos, Fernando J Bianco
January-March 2012, 28(1):9-14
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94942  
Prostate cancer is a global public health problem, and it is the most common cancer in American men and the second cause for cancer-related death. Experimental evidence shows that prostate tissue possesses cannabinoid receptors and their stimulation results in anti-androgenic effects. To review currently relevant findings related to effects of cannabinoid receptors in prostate cancer. PubMed search utilizing the terms "cannabis," "cannabinoids," "prostate cancer," and "cancer pain management," giving preference to most recent publications was done. Articles identified were screened for their relevance to the field of prostate cancer and interest to both urologist and pain specialists. Prostate cancer cells possess increased expression of both cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptors, and stimulation of these results in decrease in cell viability, increased apoptosis, and decreased androgen receptor expression and prostate-specific antigen excretion. It would be of interest to conduct clinical studies utilizing cannabinoids for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, taking advantage not only of its beneficial effects on prostate cancer but also of their analgesic properties for bone metastatic cancer pain.
  2 7,163 137
SYMPOSIUM
Laparoendoscopic single site in pelvic surgery
Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Rafael Clavijo, Eric Barret, Rene Sotelo
January-March 2012, 28(1):54-59
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94958  
Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) has recently gained momentum as feasible techniques for minimal access surgery. Our aim is to describe the current status of laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in pelvic surgery. A comprehensive revision of the literature in LESS pelvic surgery was performed. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-01 to 30-11-11. References outside the search period were obtained selected manuscript΄s bibliography. Search terms included: pelvic anatomy, less in gynecology, single port colectomy, urological less, single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. 314 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 46 manuscripts were selected based in their pelvic anatomy or surgical content; including experimental experience, clinical series and literature reviews. LESS drastically limit the surgeon's ability to perform in the operative field and the latter becomes hardened by the lack of space in anatomical location like the pelvis. Potential advantages of LESS are gained with the understanding that the surgical procedure is more technically challenging. Pelvic surgical procedures related to colorectal surgery, gynecology and urology have been performed with LESS technique and information available is mostly represented by case reports and short case series. Comparative series remain few. LESS pelvic surgery remain in its very beginning and due to the very specific anatomical conditions further development of LESS surgery in the mentioned area can be clearly be facilitated by using robotic technology. Standardization ad reproducibility of techniques are mandatory to further develop LESS in the surgical arena..
  2 2,556 150
CASE REPORTS
Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate: A rare tumor
Simone Albisinni, Cosimo De Nunzio, Andrea Tubaro
January-March 2012, 28(1):89-91
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94964  
Pure small cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, with only few cases described in literature and poor prognosis: mean survival is 5 months. We report the case of a patient with this disease, with special attention to the evolution of neuroendocrine markers as Chromogranine A and neuron-specific enolase during the progression of the tumor, evaluating their possible role in staging and follow up.
  1 3,858 63
MINI REVIEW
The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE)
Rajesh Nair, Senthy Sellaturay, Seshadri Sriprasad
January-March 2012, 28(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94946  
Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing', we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing' (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a 'crystal-like belly' to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.
  1 5,804 106
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using customized prolene mesh: A safe and cost-effective approach for high-grade pelvic organ prolapse
Samit Chaturvedi, Rajesh Bansal, Priyadarshi Ranjan, MS Ansari, Deepa Kapoor, Rakesh Kapoor
January-March 2012, 28(1):21-27
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94949  
Aims: To assess safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair with customized prolene mesh in patients with high-grade pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 patients, who underwent trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh from January 2007 to June 2010 for grade III and IV pelvic organ prolapse, were analyzed retrospectively. Prolapse was graded using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system of International Continence Society. Patients were evaluated for symptoms associated with prolapse pre- and postoperatively. Results: Of the 32 patients, 18 were grade IV uterine prolapse, 10 were grade III uterine prolapse, and 4 were grade IV vault prolapse. Twenty-eight patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the time of repair. All the patients had associated anterior and posterior prolapse of varying degree. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 42 months. All patients had symptomatic relief after surgery. There were no intraoperative rectal or bladder injuries. Early complications were perineal pain (30), de novo urgency (4), vaginal discharge (3), vaginal wall hematoma (2), and failure to void (2). Two patients had vaginal erosion of mesh. Conclusions: Trans-vaginal total pelvic floor repair using a customized prolene mesh is safe and effective treatment for comprehensive repair of high-grade pelvic organ prolapse. The use of this custom-made prolene mesh makes the procedure very cost-effective and affordable. The reduction in cost is about 25-30 times with the use of this mesh when compared with commercially available variety.
  1 13,922 98
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Oncological outcome analysis from a single-center Indian experience of 6 years
Shashikant Mishra, Vikas Agrawal, Naushad Khatri, Rajan Sharma, Abraham Kurien, Arvind Ganpule, V Muthu, Ravindra B Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
January-March 2012, 28(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94953  
Background: There is a lack of published data on laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) in India. Although the published short-term oncologic outcomes after LRP are encouraging, intermediate and long-term data are lacking. Objective: We analyzed the oncological outcome after LRP based on 6 years of experience and compared it with the other single-center published literature. Materials and Methods: Of the 90 patients who underwent LRP for a clinical T2 localized disease, 73 patients with at least a follow up of one year were analyzed. Patients were classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk D'Amico groups in 22 (30%), 26 (36%), and 25 (34%) of the patient population, respectively. Progression of disease was defined as a PSA of 0.4ng/ml with a confirmatory rise. We used Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates to calculate actuarial 5-year probabilities of biochemical progression-free survival. Univariate analysis of risk factors for biochemical recurrence (BCR) was done. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.3 ± 6.6 years. The average follow-up for patients was 22 (12-72) months. There was no prostatic cancer-specific mortality. Fourteen patients had BCR. The 5-year progression-free probability for men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancers was 91%, 82%, and 58%, respectively. High-risk group, Gleason sum more than 8, extracapsular extension, and positive surgical margin were significantly associated with biochemical progression. Conclusions: LRP provided a similar level of oncological success as reported by the other contemporary single-center published literature
  1 2,243 78
Discordant clinical and histological findings predict failure of reconstruction in suspected obstructive azoospermia
Shailesh C Sahay, Venkateswaran K Iyer, Rajeev Kumar
January-March 2012, 28(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94955  
Aims and Objectives: To analyze testicular histopathology in men diagnosed as idiopathic obstructive azoospermia (IOA) based on normal spermatogenesis on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) but with absence of sperms in the epididymis during surgical exploration. Materials and Methods: Men presenting with infertility due to IOA during the study period from July 2008 to July 2010 were prospectively evaluated. Clinical examination, semen analysis, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular FNAC were done. Men with normal volume azoospermia with normal spermatogenesis on FNAC and palpable vas were offered scrotal exploration for microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis (VEA). Patients in whom reconstruction was not feasible intraoperatively were analyzed for the causes of failure. The FNAC, FSH and biopsy of these patients were compared. Results: 77 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In 38 men, sperm was present in the epididymal fluid and VEA was performed. In 39 men, reconstruction was not feasible. Thirty-four of these 39 men had normal FSH and testicular volume. In 5 of these 39 men, serum FSH was high (mean 17.48 mIU/ml) and testes were small in size (mean volume 14.5 ml). Testicular biopsy in two of these five men showed patchy areas of atrophy, while the other three men had hyalinized seminiferous tubules with thickened basement membrane, maturation arrest and normal spermatogenesis, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC was discordant with histopathological examination (HPE) in four out of five patients of negative surgical exploration with raised FSH. Therefore, among men with idiopathic azoospermia, only those with both normal FSH and normal FNAC should be diagnosed as obstructive azoospermia and explored.
  1 4,051 67
CASE REPORTS
Transverse testicular ectopia with disorders of sex development
Katsuya Aoki, Masaomi Kuwada, Kiyohide Fujimoto, Yoshihiko Hirao
January-March 2012, 28(1):92-93
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94965  
Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare congenital anomaly. Although TTE often coexists with abnormalities such as inguinal hernia and persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, disorders of sex development (DSD) in combination with TTE is extremely rare. We report a case of DSD with sex chromosomal abnormality in combination with TTE. To our knowledge, this case report is a first presentation of such anomaly.
  - 2,437 41
Discontinuous type of splenogonadal fusion syndrome with limb defects
Vivek Patre, Satyabhuwan Netam, Pankaj Luka, Hulesh Mandle
January-March 2012, 28(1):94-95
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94966  
Splenogonadal fusion is a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of discontinuous type of splenogonadal fusion with congenital malformation. We focused here to avoid unnecessary orchidectomy by cementing the base of preoperative scrotal ultrasonography, for paratesticular masses.
  - 1,932 37
Ureteric obstruction: A unique case
Kathamuthu Ponnusamy, Rajesh
January-March 2012, 28(1):96-98
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94967  
The diagnosis of carcinoid tumor of the appendix is rare; the involvement is often limited to the gastrointestinal tract. Extramural involvement of surrounding structures has been reported; however, direct involvement of the ureter has not been reported. We report a case of carcinoid tumor of appendix involving the ureter and causing obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of such presentation in available literature. A 23-year-old woman who presented with right loin pain and intermittent fever for 1 week duration and found to have gross hydroureteronephrosis on the right side due to a mass compressing the ureter.
  - 1,837 68
Cystolithotomy during robotic radical prostatectomy: Single-stage procedure for concomitant bladder stones
Gerald Y Tan, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, David L Peters, Abhishek Srivastava, Ashutosh Tewari
January-March 2012, 28(1):99-101
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94968  
Asymptomatic concomitant vesical calculi are an occasional finding on routine radiologic staging and evaluation of patients with early prostate cancer. We report the first case of single-stage robotic cystolithotomy for multiple bladder stones in a 64-year-old man undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy, and discuss the approaches available for ensuring complete stone clearance in this unique setting. We show that concomitant bladder stone extraction during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy is feasible and does not add significantly to operative time. This technique avoids the need to undergo additional general anesthetic procedures with potential complications such as bleeding, urethral stricture formation, and bladder perforation, prior to the prostatectomy.
  - 3,127 28
A case of primary extraosseous penile osteosarcoma and review of the literature
Sanish S Shringarpure, Arun Kumar, Shrinivasan Shankar, Maya Menon
January-March 2012, 28(1):102-104
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94969  
Primary extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the penis (ESO) is a very rare condition. As per our knowledge, this is the seventh reported case in the world literature. We report a case of primary ESO of the penis in a young male, which was treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. This case is presented for its rarity and the scarcity in the literature regarding its treatment and prognosis.
  - 2,876 37
EDITORIAL
Is LESS is actually more?
Nitin S Kekre
January-March 2012, 28(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94937  
  - 2,062 167
LETTER TO EDITOR
Zinc status in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-March 2012, 28(1):115-115
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94974  
  - 1,509 46
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Testicular fine-needle aspiration versus testicular open biopsy: Comparable sperm retrieval rate in selected patients
Mohammad Reza Nowroozi, Hamed Ahmadi, Mohsen Ayati, Hasan Jamshidian, Ali Sirous
January-March 2012, 28(1):37-42
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94954  
Background: Sperm recovery by testicular fine-needle aspiration (TESA) has resulted in variable sperm retrieval rate (SRR) and is generally considered inferior to open biopsy (testicular sperm extraction [TESE]). Aims: To develop a predictive model for SRR by TESA and to identify factors associated with comparable SRR between TESA and TESE. Settings and Design: Single-center controlled cross-sectional study on 450 infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia. Materials and Methods: Clinical, paraclinical, and histological information of patients were gathered. All patients underwent both TESA and TESE in a single operation. Predictors of SRR by TESA were identified, and the accuracy of TESA in predicting the outcome of TESE was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical and continuous variables were compared using independent t test and -chi-square test. Logistic regression model was applied to develop a predictive model for SRR by TESA. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the accuracy of TESA in predicting TESE outcome. Results: Sperm retrieval rate for TESA and TESE was 41.8 and 50.9%, respectively (P = 0.04). Age, duration of infertility, testis volume, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and testosterone did not differ between patients with and without mature sperm in TESA samples. Serum follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) < 15 IU/l (Exp (B) = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.4-18.5; P = 0.001) and histology of hypospermatogenesis (Exp (B) = 6.4, 95% CI: 2.1-27.4; P < 0.001) were predictors of SRR by TESA. In patients with FSH < 15 IU/l (57.4% versus 59.5%; Area under the curve (AUC) = 0.907) and testicular histology of hypospermatogenesis (68.0% versus 70.5%; AUC = 0.890), the SRR by TESA was predictive of SRR by TESE. Conclusions: Serum FSH and testicular pathology were predictors of SRR by TESA. Patients with FSH < 15 IU/l and/or testicular pathology of hypospermatogenesis had comparable SRR by TESA versus TESE.
  - 3,911 94
Investigation of recurrent deletion loci specific to conventional renal cell carcinoma by comparative allelotyping in major epithelial carcinomas
Rashmi R Bhat (Singh), Pratibha S Amare (Kadam)
January-March 2012, 28(1):47-52
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94956  
Objective: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were undertaken to investigate the consistently deleted loci/? tumor suppressor gene loci (TSG) on 3p in conventional renal cell carcinoma (cRCC). Materials and Methods: LOH studies were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 15 micro satellite markers mapped in region 3p12-p26 on 40 paired cRCC tumors and normal kidney at Stages I-IV. Simultaneously, fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) studies were performed to investigate the allelic deletion of fragile histidine triad (FHIT). Results: Our studies revealed three affected regions; 3p12.2-p14.1, 3p14.2-p21.1, and 3p24.2-p26.1 with differential frequencies in Group I (Stage I and II) and Group II (Stage III and IV). Incidence for D3S1234 (FHIT locus) and D3S2454 (3p13) was 75% and 83% in Group I and II, respectively. Comparative allelotyping in epithelial malignancies like lung, bladder, and breast tumors revealed LOH (frequency 14−20%) only in breast tumors for D3S2406, D3S1766 (distal to FHIT), and D3S1560 (distal to VHL, Von-Hippal Lindau). FISH using FHIT gene probe revealed deletions in cRCC (88%), breast (30%), and lung tumors (10%) with no deletions in bladder tumors and leukemias, signifying the importance of FHIT in the pathogenesis of tumors of epithelial origin. Conclusion: Our findings suggested FHIT deletion as an early and VHL deletion as an early and/or late event in cRCC. Additionally, studies also disclosed the recurrent deletions of flanking loci to FHIT and VHL in cRCC. The dilemma of interstitial or continuous deletion on 3p needs to be resolved by implementation of latest sensitive molecular techniques that would further help to narrow down search for TSG loci specific to cRCC, other than VHL and FHIT.
  - 2,824 38
REVIEW ARTICLES
Hemostasis in laparoscopic renal surgery
Hussam A Hassouna, Ramaswamy Manikandan
January-March 2012, 28(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94939  
Hemorrhage is a potential risk at any step of laparoscopic nephrectomies (LNs). The advances in surgical equipment and tissue sealants have increased the safety and efficiency of performing LN and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). However, hemostasis remains a major issue and there is still scope for further development to improve haemostatic techniques and devices. In this article a literature review of the current methods and techniques of hemostasis was carried out using the MEDLINE® /PubMed® resources. The results of the review were categorized according to the three main operative steps: Dissection, control of renal pedicle and excision of the renal lesion.
  - 3,259 252
SURGICAL CRAFT
Radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and continent catheterizable stoma (Yang-Monti tecnique)
Mario Alvarez Maestro, Luis Martinez-Piñeiro, Emilio Rios Gonzalez
January-March 2012, 28(1):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94971  
Malignant melanoma originating in the urethra is considered extremely rare and has a very poor prognosis. Consequently, therapeutic reviews are retrospective describing assorted treatments. We report how to perform a radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and a continent catheterizable stoma (Yang-Monti technique) Radical urethrectomy with bladder preservation and a continent catheterizable stoma may be appropriate in selected patients with tumours that do not invade the bladder neck.
  - 3,947 60
SYMPOSIUM
Upper tract urologic LaparoEndoscopic Single-Site surgery
Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Nikhil Waingankar, Lee Richstone
January-March 2012, 28(1):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94959  
LaparoEndoscopic Single-Site (LESS) surgery has been developed as an extension of conventional laparoscopy to provide a minimally invasive option with fewer incisions, minimizing scars and potentially improving postoperative convalescence. These techniques have been adopted in the practice of urologic surgery, and largely employed to date for upper tract surgery by urologists in specialized centers with advanced laparoscopic practices. Herein, we review the current experience with upper tract urologic LESS surgery.
  - 3,302 128
Laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy
Arvind P Ganpule, Shashikant Mishra, Ravindra Sabnis
January-March 2012, 28(1):65-70
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94960  
A donor would prefer a minimally invasive procedure because of lesser morbidity, this may be the reason that laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) rates have exponentially increased. The rationale dictates that a virtually scarless surgery would be most beneficial to this patient subgroup. In this article, we review the approach, instrumentation, dissection and retrieval issues and the results of laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN). The existing literature on LESS-DN was reviewed in Pubmed. The various access sites described for LESS-DN include the umbilicus and Pfannenstiel incision. The steps of LESS-DN duplicate those of standard LDN. There is a paucity of studies comparing LESS-DN with LDN, particularly randomized studies. The most challenging step of LESS-DN is graft retrieval. Authors have described a variety of methods for graft retrieval which include manual methods, and those using retrieval bags. In the majority of the studies, the graft retrieval time is longer in comparison to standard LDN. However, the graft outcome in recipients is comparable. In this article, we also allude to the complications mentioned in various series. LESS-DN is currently an evolving procedure. The procedure requires a high level of skills in laparoscopic surgery. The choice of access site, access site ports and the type of instruments to be used is a matter of surgeon preference. Although the warm ischemia time in most of the series is longer in LESS-DN, this has not translated into poor recipient outcomes. Further work needs to be done to make the retrieval quick.
  - 2,138 139
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and cancer
Evangelos N Liatsikos, Loannis Georgiopoulos, Panagiotis Kallidonis, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg
January-March 2012, 28(1):71-75
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94961  
Objectives: To perform a survey of the current state of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) and its implementation in the treatment of malignant disease of the urinary tract. Although it is a recent development in the field of laparoscopic surgery with still unproven long-term results, LESS may prove to be more commonly performed in the coming years while managing urologic cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A PubMed search was conducted using the key words laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, LESS, urologic cancer. Relevant articles were reviewed for data on the management of urologic malignancy with LESS. Results: The first articles describing LESS for urologic cancers were published in 2007. Since then, published experience with this technique has increased. LESS has been implemented as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for the treatment of major urologic cancers. The proposed advantages of LESS are the aesthetic benefit of a single incision and a quicker and less painful recovery. Disadvantages are the lack of instrument triangulation, instrument clashing and the steeper learning curve. As this is a fairly recent technical innovation, long-term functional and oncological results for LESS have not yet been published. Conclusions: LESS is a novel technical advance over conventional laparoscopic surgery, and it can be successfully used in the treatment of patients with urologic cancers. Published data support the feasibility and safety of LESS interventions for major urologic cancers, and newer data may assist in finding LESS's ultimate position among therapeutic options for patients with urologic malignancies.
  - 1,891 101
SYMPOSIUM-EDITORIAL
LESS in urology
Pradeep P Rao, Mahesh R Desai
January-March 2012, 28(1):53-53
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94957  
  - 1,451 174
URORADIOLOGY
Renal replacement lipomatosis
KR Prasad, H Satish Chandra, KR Vijay Kumar
January-March 2012, 28(1):105-106
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.94970  
  - 2,805 80
UROSCAN
Less pain is no gain: Is minimal invasive tension-free vaginal tape-Secur effective in the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence?
Arun Chawla
January-March 2012, 28(1):111-112
  - 1,094 57
Entero-urethroplasty: A new hope for complicated bulbo-membranous urethral strictures
Dheeraj Kumar Gupta
January-March 2012, 28(1):113-114
  - 1,558 91
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