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   2009| October-December  | Volume 25 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 30, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Age, gender, and voided volume dependency of peak urinary flow rate and uroflowmetry nomogram in the Indian population
Vikash Kumar, Jayesh V Dhabalia, Girish G Nelivigi, Mahendra S Punia, Manav Suryavanshi
October-December 2009, 25(4):461-466
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57912  PMID:19955668
Objectives : The objective of this study was measurement of urine flow parameters by a non invasive urodynamic test. Variation of flow rates based on voided volume, age, and gender are described. Different nomograms are available for different populations and racial differences of urethral physiology are described. Currently, there has been no study from the Indian population on uroflow parameters. So the purpose of this study was to establish normal reference ranges of maximum and average flow rates, to see the influence of age, gender, and voided volume on flow rates, and to chart these values in the form of a nomogram. Methods : We evaluated 1,011 uroflowmetry tests in different age groups in a healthy population (healthy relatives of our patients) 16-50 year old males, >50 year old males, 5-15 year old children, and >15 year pre-menopausal and post-menopausal females. The uroflowmetry was done using the gravitimetric method. Flow chart parameters were analyzed and statistical calculations were used for drawing uroflow nomograms. Results : Qmax values in adult males were significantly higher than in the elderly and Qmax values in young females were significantly higher than in young males. Qmax values in males increased with age until 15 years old; followed by a slow decline until reaching 50 years old followed by a rapid decline after 50 years old even after correcting voided volume. Qmax values in females increased with age until they reached age 15 followed by decline in flow rate until a pre-menopausal age followed by no significant decline in post-menopausal females. Qmax values increased with voided volume until 700 cc followed by a plateau and decline. Conclusions : Qmax values more significantly correlated with age and voided volume than Qavg. Nomograms were drawn in centile form to provide normal reference ranges. Qmax values in our population were lower than described in literature. Patients with voided volume up to 50 ml could be evaluated with a nomogram.
  19,400 310 6
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ureteral stent discomfort: Etiology and management
Ricardo Miyaoka, Manoj Monga
October-December 2009, 25(4):455-460
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57910  PMID:19955667
Objectives : To review the evidence-based literature on the causes, characteristics, and options to manage double J stent-related symptoms. Methods : We performed a Medline database assessment on papers that investigated the prevalence, mechanisms, risk factors, bothersome and management of double-J stent-related symptoms. Articles in English were reviewed and summarized. Results : Stent-related symptoms have a high prevalence and may affect over 80% of patients. They include irritative voiding symptoms including frequency, urgency, dysuria, incomplete emptying; flank and suprapubic pain; incontinence, and hematuria. Assessment tools are important to determine their intensity and allow for comparisons between different points in the timeline. The Urinary Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) is the most proper tool used for this purpose. Management should be focused on the prevention and management of symptoms. In this sense, research has focused on new materials and stent designs that would be more compatible to the physiologic properties of the urinary tract and medications that can ameliorate the sensitivity and motor response of the bladder. Conclusions : Stent-related symptoms are very common in the Urological clinical setting. It is of major importance for the urologist to understand their physiopathology and to be familiar with ways to avoid or manage them.
  16,694 809 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A prospective randomized study comparing alfuzosin and tamsulosin in the management of patients suffering from acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia
Madhu S Agrawal, Abhishek Yadav, Himanshu Yadav, Amit K Singh, Prashant Lavania, Richa Jaiman
October-December 2009, 25(4):474-478
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57917  PMID:19955671
Objective : Prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin and tamsulosin in patients suffering from acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods : Patients with acute urinary retention (AUR) due to BPH (total 150) were catheterized and randomized into three groups: Group A: alfuzosin 10 mg (50 patients), Group B: tamsulosin 0.4 mg (50 patients), Group C: placebo (50 patients). After three days, catheter was removed, and patients were put on trial without catheter (TWOC). Patients with successful TWOC were followed up for three months, taking into account the prostate symptom score (AUA Score), post-void residual urine volume (PVRV), and peak flow rate (PFR). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results : Both group A (alfuzosin) and group B (tamsulosin) had similar results of TWOC (group A - 66%, group B - 70%), which were significantly superior than group C (placebo) - 36%. In follow up, three (9.1%) patients in group A, three (8.6%) patients in group B and eight (44.4%) patients in group C had retention of urine, requiring recatheterization. These patients were withdrawn from the study. After three months, alfuzosin- or tamsulosin-treated patients showed a significant decrease in AUA score and PVRV; and a significant increase in PFR as compared to placebo. Conclusions : TWOC was more successful in men treated with either alfuzosin or tamsulosin and the subsequent need for recatheterization was also reduced. Tamsulosin was comparable to alfuzosin in all respects, except a small but significant side effect of retrograde ejaculation.
  7,596 416 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Staging of renal cell carcinoma: Current concepts
John S Lam, Tobias Klatte, Alberto Breda
October-December 2009, 25(4):446-454
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57906  PMID:19955666
The most important and widely utilized system for providing prognostic information following surgical management for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently the tumor, nodes, and metastasis (TNM) staging system. An accurate and clinically useful staging system is an essential tool used to provide patients with counseling regarding prognosis, select treatment modalities, and determining eligibility for clinical trials. Data published over the last few years has led to significant controversies as to whether further revisions are needed and whether improvements can be made with the introduction of new, more accurate predictive prognostic factors. Staging systems have also evolved with an increase in the understanding of RCC tumor biology. Molecular tumor biomarkers are expected to revolutionize the staging of RCC by providing more effective prognostic ability over traditional clinical variables alone. This review will examine the components of the TNM staging system, current staging modalities including comprehensive integrated staging systems, and predictive nomograms, and introduce the concept of molecular staging for RCC.
  5,648 553 7
Contrast induced nephropathy in urology
Viji Samuel Thomson, Kumar Narayanan, J Chandra Singh
October-December 2009, 25(4):437-445
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57904  PMID:19955665
Intravenous contrast agents have a distinct role in urological imaging: to study precise anatomical delineation, vascularity, and to assess the function of the renal unit. Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a known adverse effect of intravenous contrast administration. The literature on incidence, pathophysiology, clinical features, and current preventive strategies available for CIN relevant to urologists was reviewed. A search of the PubMed database was done using the keywords nephropathy and media, prevention and control or prevention Contrast media (explode), all adverse effects, and kidney diseases (explode). An online search of the EMBASE database for the time ranging from 1977 to February 2009 was performed using the keywords ionic contrast medium, adverse drug reaction, major or controlled clinical study, human, nephrotoxicity, and kidney disease. Current publications and data most relevant to urologists were examined. CIN was the third most common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. The incidence is less common with intravenous contrast administration as compared with intra-arterial administration. The pathogenesis of contrast mediated nephropathy is due to a combination of toxic injury to renal tubules and medullary ischemic injury mediated by reactive oxygen species. CIN most commonly manifests as a nonoliguric and asymptomatic transient decline in renal function. Patients who developed CIN were found to have increased mortality, longer hospital stay, and complicated clinical course. An overview of risk factors and risk prediction score for prognostication of CIN are elaborated. Preventive strategies including choice of contrast agents, maximum tolerated dose, role of hydration, hydration regime, etc. are discussed. The role of N- acetyl cysteine, Theophylline, Fenoldapam, Endothelin receptor antagonists, iloprost, atrial natriuretic peptide, and newer therapies such as targeted renal therapy (TRT) are discussed. A working algorithm based on current evidence is proposed. No current treatment can reverse or ameliorate CIN once it occurs, but prophylaxis is possible.
  4,658 696 5
Molecular targeted therapy in advanced renal cell carcinoma: A review of its recent past and a glimpse into the near future
John S.P Yuen
October-December 2009, 25(4):427-436
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57899  PMID:19955664
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all urologic malignancies. Recent translational research in RCC has led to the discovery of a new class of therapeutics that specifically target important signaling molecules critical in the pathogenesis of the disease. It is now clear that these new molecular targeted agents have revolutionized the management of patients with metastatic RCC. However, the exact molecular mechanism accounting for their clinical effect is largely unknown and a significant proportion of patients with metastatic RCC do not respond to these therapeutics. This review presents the relevant background leading to the development of molecular targeted therapy for patients with advanced RCC and summarizes current management issues in particular relating to the emerging problem of treatment resistance and the need for clinical and laboratory biomarkers to predict treatment outcomes in these patients. In addition, this paper will also address surgical issues in the era of molecular targeted therapy including the role of cytoreductive surgery and surgical safety issues post-molecular therapy. Lastly, this review will also address the need to explore new molecular treatment targets in RCC and briefly present our work on one of the promising molecular targets - the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), which may in the near future lead to the development of anti-IGF1R therapy for patients with advanced RCC.
  4,549 648 6
SYMPOSIUM
Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Newer trends
Monish Aron, Burak Turna
October-December 2009, 25(4):516-522
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57931  PMID:19955679
Objectives: To report the advances in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for renal masses with emphasis on technically challenging cases. Methods: Literature in the English language was reviewed using the National Library of Medicine database using the key words kidney, renal, tumor, nephron sparing surgery, and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, for the period between 1993 and 2009. Over 500 articles were identified. A total of 50 articles were selected for this review based on their relevance to the evolution of the technique and outcomes, as well as expanding indications for LPN. Results: In expert hands, LPN is safe and effective for central tumors, completely intrarenal tumors, hilar tumors, tumor in a solitary kidney, large tumors requiring heminephrectomy, cystic tumors, multiple tumors, obese patients, and even incidental stage ≥ pT2 tumors. Perioperative outcomes and 5-year oncologic outcomes after LPN are comparable to open partial nephrectomy (OPN). Conclusions: In experienced hands indications for LPN have expanded significantly. In 2009, advanced LPN remains a skill-intensive procedure that can nevertheless provide excellent outcomes for patients with renal tumors.
  4,360 313 15
CASE REPORTS
High-flow priapism in a 12-year-old boy: Treatment with superselective embolization
AR Mossadeq, R Sasikumar, M.Z.M Nazli, AM Shafie, M.D.M Ashraf
October-December 2009, 25(4):539-540
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57918  PMID:19955685
Priapism is caused by an imbalance between penile blood inflow and outflow. There are two types of priapism: low-flow priapism due to venous occlusion and high-flow priapism due to uncontrolled arterial flow to the veins. High-flow priapism most frequently occurs as a result of penile trauma in which the intercavernosal artery disruption causes an arteriocavernosal fistula. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric and prepubertal population. Clinically, it manifests as a painless, prolonged erection after perineal trauma. Treatment ranges from expectant management to open surgical exploration with vessel ligation. We report the successful treatment of high-flow priapism in a 12-year-old prepubertal boy with superselective embolization.
  3,776 174 3
POINT-COUNTER-POINT
Transobturator tapes are preferable over transvaginal tapes for the management of female stress urinary incontinence: Against
Arun Chawla
October-December 2009, 25(4):554-557
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57903  PMID:19955693
Midurethral placement of tension-free vaginal tapes with a transvaginal route for stress urinary incontinence achieves higher and better long-term success rates than the transobturator route. Bladder perforations are reported more in transvaginal tape (TVT) but incidences of vaginal erosions, extrusion, and groin pain are exceedingly more in TOT groups. There is no clear evidence that transobturator tape (TOT) is associated with less post-operative voiding problems than TVT. Major complications such as bowel injuries and significant vascular injuries with TVT are rare. TVT has been found to be superior to TOT and preferable in technically demanding conditions such as prior anti-incontinence operation failures, obese women, and very elevated and scarred lateral cul-de sac. TVT is always preferred in severe grades of stress urinary incontinence and with patients of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) with little or no urethral mobility.
  3,359 194 5
SYMPOSIUM
Watchful waiting in the treatment of the small renal mass
K Clint Cary, Chandru P Sundaram
October-December 2009, 25(4):489-493
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57923  PMID:19955675
Objectives : To evaluate the role and feasibility of observation with regard to the small renal mass. Methods : We performed a literature search of MEDLINE, reviewing the world literature relevant to the natural history, role of percutaneous biopsy and surveillance of the small renal mass. Results : The average yearly growth rate of most small renal masses ranges from 0.1 to 0.70 cm/yr with obvious exceptions. Clinical predictors of growth such as radiographic size at presentation, age, gender and tumor characteristics are not reliable. Approximately 1% develops metastatic disease while under surveillance. Contemporary series of percutaneous biopsy of small renal masses report sensitivity for malignancy to be 90%-98%. However, false-negative results can occur. For the majority of patients, the gold standard remains surgical extirpation. Conclusions : Watchful waiting is an acceptable option for management of small renal masses in the surgically unfit and elderly population. More information regarding the natural history and metastatic potential of small renal masses is needed. Percutaneous needle biopsy can be successful in detecting malignancy in selected patients with small renal masses. The role of needle biopsy for the small renal mass continues to evolve
  3,207 323 7
Robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy: Has it come of age?
Manish N Patel, Mahendra Bhandari, Mani Menon, Craig G Rogers
October-December 2009, 25(4):523-528
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57929  PMID:19955680
Surgical resection is the gold standard for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, and partial nephrectomy (PN) is the treatment of choice for tumors smaller than 4 cm in size. A laparoscopic PN is a viable alternative to a traditional open PN, demonstrating good oncologic and functional outcomes. A laparoscopic PN is a challenging procedure, particularly performing intracorporeal suturing under the time constraints of warm ischemia. The introduction of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) with wristed instruments and magnified, 3-dimensional vision may facilitate the technical challenges of a minimally invasive PN. The technique of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is still evolving and a number of institutions have recently reported their results. In this article, we present a review of the literature and our technique for robotic PN using a transperitoneal approach.
  3,287 234 10
CASE REPORTS
Carcinoid tumor of the kidney: An unusual renal tumor
PP Singh, Amit Singh Malhotra, Vikas Kashyap
October-December 2009, 25(4):537-538
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57921  PMID:19955684
Carcinoid tumors are low-grade malignant tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. Primary renal carcinoid is extremely rare. We present a case of 57-year-old male with primary renal carcinoid tumor. Presently, the patient is on regular follow up and is doing well.
  3,329 157 6
SYMPOSIUM
The current role of renal biopsy in the management of localized renal tumors
Gagan Gautam, Kevin C Zorn
October-December 2009, 25(4):494-498
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57926  PMID:19955676
Introduction : In the current era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for localized tumors, pretreatment tissue biopsy is being revisited and re-evaluated. Whether a renal biopsy can supplement imaging investigations to change patient management is a subject of current research. Materials and Methods : We performed a database search in PubMed for manuscripts from 1988 to 2008 using the appropriate keywords. Manuscripts were selected according to their relevance to the current topic and incorporated into this review. Results : Preoperative renal biopsy has been utilized to effectively distinguish between benign and malignant tumors localized to the kidney with minimal additional morbidity attributable to the procedure. Tissue diagnosis can also potentially grade renal tumors and uncover unusual malignancies. Although its acceptance remains limited, with fear of false negative results, bleeding and tumor seeding, its ability to influence management decisions has been demonstrated in literature. Conclusions : The role of preoperative renal biopsy for localized renal tumors is likely to increase rapidly in the coming times. With the expanding scope and utilization of NSS, this diagnostic modality will find increased applicability and acceptance in individualizing management protocols in the future.
  3,092 354 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Renal dysplasia with single system ectopic ureter: Diagnosis using magnetic resonance urography and management with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy in pediatric age
Milind Joshi, Sandesh Parelkar, Heemanshi Shah
October-December 2009, 25(4):470-473
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57916  PMID:19955670
Single system ureteral ectopia and associated congenital dysplastic kidney is surgically curable etiology of incontinence with other wise normal pattern of voiding in female child. We share our experience of eight cases in last one year and its management with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy at a tertiary care hospital in India which is one of the largest series in such a short duration of this rare anomaly. Materials and Methods : Patients presented with clinical features of continence with otherwise normal pattern of voiding were clinically examined and investigated by ultrasound (USG), nuclear renal scan, magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was done in all the eight cases and renal dysplasia was confirmed on histological examination. Results : All the patients were females in the age group of five months to five years. USG detected the renal dysplasia in three out of eight cases; however, it could not detect the course of the ectopic ureter in any of the cases. MRU picked up the dysplastic moieties and their location as well as functional status and also depicted the course of the ectopic ureter opening into the vaginal wall in all the eight cases. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was done in all the cases and patients were cured off their symptoms. Conclusion : Single system ectopic ureter associated with congenital renal dysplasia is exceedingly rare. MRU is definitely the better investigation for the diagnosis of this condition as compared to the conventional radiological investigations. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is a very good procedure for the management of these cases.
  3,265 153 8
SYMPOSIUM
Current status of ablative therapies for renal tumors
Adam C Mues, Jaime Landman
October-December 2009, 25(4):499-507
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57928  PMID:19955677
The increase in detection of small (≤ 4 cm) renal cortical neoplasms has made nephron-sparing surgery the new standard of care for T1a renal lesions. Advances in minimally invasive surgery have improved the surgical approach to these lesions to include laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and renal ablative therapies. In this review, we discuss the indications, outcomes, and potential complications of the commonly used ablative modalities in urologic practice. We will expand on renal cryoablation and review the mechanism of action, surgical approaches, and evidence based medicine using this modality.
  2,872 277 1
UROSCAN
Naftopidil as medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stone
Abhishek Jain, HS Pahwa, Apul Goel
October-December 2009, 25(4):559-560
  2,820 214 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Dorsal vein tear during radical total penectomy
B Satheesan, N Kathiresan, KT Siddhappa
October-December 2009, 25(4):548-549
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57909  PMID:19955691
  2,860 127 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Renal cell carcinoma: Impact of mode of detection on its pathological characteristics
Paresh Jain, R Surdas, Pallavi Aga, Manoj Jain, Rakesh Kapoor, Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mandhani
October-December 2009, 25(4):479-482
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57919  PMID:19955672
Objective : Data correlating mode of presentation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with pathological prognostic factors is sparse from India. We compared RCC presenting incidentally with those presenting symptomatically with respect to pathological prognostic factors and assessed whether this could serve as a decision making resource for diagnosing small and more favorable tumors. Materials and Methods : The data were reviewed for 328 patients operated for renal tumors between January 2000 and October 2008 at our institute. The pathological factors (tumor size, stage, grade, histopathological type) in relation to the mode of presentation were analyzed according to 1997 TNM criteria. Statistical analysis was performed via the chi-square (Fisher exact) and Mann -Whitney U test. The statistical significance level utilized was P < 0.05. Results : Among the patients assessed, 93 (28.4%) had incidental diagnosis and 235 (71.6%) had symptomatic presentation. Sex and side distribution was not significantly different in the two groups. Mean tumor size was 5.75 ± 2.73 cm in incidentally detected RCC (IRCC) and 9.32 ± 3.70 (P < 0.001) in symptomatic RCC (SRCC). Stage I and II tumors were significantly greater in IRCC than SRCC (P < 0.001 and 0.005 respectively) whereas stage III and IV tumors were significantly less in IRCC than SRCC. There was a predominance of higher grade tumors in SRCC, 50% being higher grades (Fuhrman's grade III and IV) in SRCC than 28.1% in IRCC (P = 0.003). There were 4 tumors with collecting duct histology in SRCC and none in IRCC. Sarcomatoid differentiation was present in 14 and 1 patient in SRCC and IRCC respectively. Conclusion : Incidental detection of renal carcinoma as compared to symptomatic tumors is lower in India as compared to western world. Incidental tumors have significantly favorable pathological prognostic factors. Our results might form a basis for further studies on how to pick RCC at an earlier stage.
  2,701 186 3
Vascularized tunica vaginalis interposition flap for the treatment of recto-urethral fistulas
Rajendra Nerli, SS Amarkhed, MB Hiremath
October-December 2009, 25(4):467-469
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57914  PMID:19955669
Introduction : Recto-urethral fistula is a rare complication of pelvic surgery, trauma, or inflammation. The many techniques for repairing these fistulas vary in their success rates. We describe the use of vascularised tunica vaginalis flap interposition in the repair of a recto-urethral fistula. Materials and Methods : Three children who had developed rectourethral fistula following surgery for anorectal anomaly/Hirschsprungs disease underwent repair through the perineal approach and interposition of vascularised tunica vaginalis flap in between the rectum and the urethra. Results : Three patients, all males aged 6 to 14 years old, presented with passage of urine per rectum following surgery. Following repair of the recto-urethral fistula, there was no recurrence of fistula in the follow-up period ranging from 1 to 6 years. Conclusions : Vascularised tunica vaginalis flap interposition is a straight-forward technique that can result in successful fistula repair.
  2,723 149 7
URORADIOLOGY
Is S-shaped kidney always a fusion anomaly? Radiological diagnosis of a new anatomical variant of a single kidney
Mayank Mohan Agarwal, Shrawan K Singh, Arup K Mandal
October-December 2009, 25(4):541-542
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57915  PMID:19955686
The term 'S-shaped kidney' typically refers to a variant of crossed-fused ectopia in which the crossed kidney is fused with the lower pole of the orthotopic kidney maintaining its orientation resulting in medially facing upper-pelvis and laterally facing lower-one; no kidney is present in the other renal fossa. [1] We present rational diagnosis and management of a rare anatomic variant of a single kidney with S shaped anomaly.
  2,623 125 2
EVIDENCE BASED UROLOGY
Is voiding cystourethrogram necessary in all cases of antenatal hydronephrosis?
MS Ansari, Halil Suat Ayyildiz, VR Jayanthi
October-December 2009, 25(4):545-546
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57911  PMID:19955688
Hydronephrosis is the most common genitourinary anomaly as detected on obstetric ultrasonography and the incidence of associated vesicoureteral reflux is around 10-12%. There is inconsistency in the literature regarding which child should under go a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) in cases of antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN). Besides, there is a scarcity of prospective studies to demonstrate the risk of varying degree of AHN, associated reflux and their long-term impact on the kidneys. The present analysis suggests that children with AHN should undergo an ultrasound within the first month of life and further course of action should be decided on the basis of the individual case. Children with persistent moderate to severe AHN should undergo a VCUG and a functional study.
  2,483 229 5
SYMPOSIUM
Role of open nephron sparing surgery in the era of minimal invasive surgery
Gaurav Gupta, Sameer Grover, Santosh Kumar, Nitin S Kekre
October-December 2009, 25(4):508-515
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57930  PMID:19955678
Objective : The study aims to review the current status of nephron sparing surgery - open partial nephrectomy (OPN) for renal cell carcinoma in the minimal invasive era. The literature search was done using National Library of Medicine database (PubMed). Results : Early experience with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is promising. It has an inherent advantage of less operative time, decreased operative blood loss and a shorter hospital stay at the expense of prolonged ischemia and operative time. Complex scenarios for partial nephrectomy such as centrally located tumor, tumor in a solitary kidney, predominantly cystic tumor, and multifocal disease probably are managed best with an open technique. All these challenging situations have been addressed successfully by experienced laparoscopic surgeons, therefore these conditions are best considered relative rather than absolute contraindications for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Conclusions : Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy faces the problem of technical complexity and availability of expertise. Open partial nephrectomy continues to be the gold standard for nephron sparing surgery.
  2,376 297 1
CASE REPORTS
Isolated renal hydatid cyst managed by laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy
Kartik J Shah, Arvind P Ganpule, Mahesh R Desai
October-December 2009, 25(4):531-533
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57925  PMID:19955682
Hydatid disease is a cyclozoonotic parasitic infestation caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female, working as a farmer, presented with vague abdominal pain and hydatiduria. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed hydatid cyst arising from the right kidney. Computerized tomography scan of the abdomen confirmed the findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy was performed. Isolated right renal hydatid cyst was removed in toto. Microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Transperitoneal laparoscopic approach gives a better working space which helped us to remain outside Gerota's fascia and prevent subsequent cyst rupture.
  2,496 163 5
Renal angiomyolipoma with inferior vena caval thrombus in a 32-year-old male
Matthew W Christian, Timothy D Moon
October-December 2009, 25(4):529-530
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57927  PMID:19955681
Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) rarely presents with evidence of extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC) or atrium. We report a case of a renal AML with a tumor thrombus to the IVC in a 32-year-old male. The patient subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombectomy. To our knowledge, there are four published cases of renal AML presenting with tumor thrombus in males. This case report describes the management of the youngest male ever to develop a renal AML with IVC tumor thrombus.
  2,517 130 3
Menouria due to congenital vesicovaginal fistula associated with complex genitourinary malformation
N Rajamaheshwari, K Seethalakshmi, Lilly Varghese
October-December 2009, 25(4):534-536
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57924  PMID:19955683
Background: Congenital vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very uncommon condition rarely suspected at initial presentation. It is usually seen in association with complex malformations of the genitourinary tract. Case: A bifid insertion of the solitary ureter causing an uretero-VVF was associated with an obstructing transverse vaginal septum manifesting as menouria. Also seen were solitary crossed renal ectopia, bicornuate uterus and skeletal anomalies. Conclusion: In women with menouria without vaginal menstruation, pre-operative evaluation to detect an obstructive vaginal anomaly and unusual uretero-vesicovaginal fistulous communications is necessary before surgical intervention.
  2,503 131 7
POINT-COUNTER-POINT
Transobturator tapes are preferable over transvaginal tapes for the management of female stress urinary incontinence: For
N Rajamaheshwari, Lilly Varghese
October-December 2009, 25(4):550-553
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57905  PMID:19955692
Tension-free midurethral slings have proven to have low morbidity and high success rates in the management of female stress urinary incontinence. Among midurethal slings, the transobtuator tapes has comparable success and satisfaction rates as the transvaginal tapes but with reduced risk of intra-operative bladder injury, shorter operating time and quicker return to activities. Thus, the transobturator tapes may be recommended as the primary choice for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.
  2,380 193 -
EVIDENCE BASED UROLOGY
Chronic kidney disease and small renal tumors: What urologists should know?
K Muruganandham, Anil Mandhani
October-December 2009, 25(4):543-544
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57913  PMID:19955687
Objective: To review the evidence in literature regarding the occurrence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) after the treatment of small renal tumors with either radical nephrectomy (RN) or partial nephrectomy (PN). Materials and Methods: Current literature reviewed using Mediline search regarding renal functional outcomes following surgical treatment of small renal tumours. Results: Studies have clearly shown that RN leads to CKD more often than PN and RN remains an independent risk factor for patients developing new onset renal insufficiency. There is independent, graded association between a reduced estimated GFR and the risk of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. PN achieves a better Health Related Quality Of Life due to better preservation of renal function. Radical nephrectomy is significantly associated with death from any cause compared with partial nephrectomy. Conclusion: Removal of entire kidney is definitely an over-treatment for small renal tumors and PN should be the standard of care for these small renal tumors even in the setting of a normal contralateral kidney.
  2,334 202 1
SYMPOSIUM
Molecular profiling of small renal masses: Current status and future directions
Balaji Kalyanaraman, Krishnanath Gaitonde, James F Donovan
October-December 2009, 25(4):485-488
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57922  PMID:19955674
Small renal masses (SRMs) are renal tumors less than 4 cm in diameter. These account for the largest proportion of newly diagnosed renal cell cancers (RCC). Management of SRMs can be a dilemma if the patient is unfit to undergo partial nephrectomy. Molecular profiling enables better characterization of RCC and prediction of outcomes in terms of recurrence and progression. This article reviews the existing literature on molecular profiling of localized RCC, discusses limitations of molecular profiling, and presents the likely role that molecular profiling will play in guiding the treatment of SRMs.
  2,046 258 -
UROSCAN
A study on the usefulness of diuretics combined with alpha blockers in the treatment of nocturia
Ankush Gupta, Vishwajeet Singh, Bhupendra P Singh
October-December 2009, 25(4):558-559
  2,011 152 -
Fibered confocal microscopy: A novel adjunct to improvise cystoscopy
Ankush Gupta, Apul Goel, Bhupendra P Singh
October-December 2009, 25(4):560-561
  1,779 130 -
Renal cell carcinoma: Preoperative prognostic nomogram
Abhishek Jain, Apul Goel
October-December 2009, 25(4):563-565
  1,632 196 -
EDITORIAL
Peer reviewers - The gate keepers of science
Nitin S Kekre
October-December 2009, 25(4):425-426
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57897  PMID:19955663
  1,589 172 1
UROSCAN
Deceased donor kidney transplantation: Machine perfusion versus cold storage
TJ Nirmal, Samiran Adhikary
October-December 2009, 25(4):562-563
  1,564 124 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Letter from Hugh J Jewett
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
October-December 2009, 25(4):547-548
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57908  PMID:19955689
  1,497 105 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
The changing scenario of nephron sparing approaches to treat renal tumors: Making a case to save the nephrons!
Krishnanath Gaitonde
October-December 2009, 25(4):483-484
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57920  PMID:19955673
  1,414 154 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
A letter
P Venugopal
October-December 2009, 25(4):547-547
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.57907  PMID:19955690
  1,415 101 -
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