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   2009| July-September  | Volume 25 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 1, 2009

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Antiplatelet drugs and the perioperative period: What every urologist needs to know
Pawan Vasudeva, Apul Goel, Vengetesh K Sengottayan, Satyanarayan Sankhwar, Divakar Dalela
July-September 2009, 25(3):296-301
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56174  PMID:19881119
Antiplatelet agents like aspirin and clopidogrel are widely used for indications ranging from primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction or stroke to prevention of coronary stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. When patients receiving antiplatelet drugs are scheduled for surgery, urologists commonly advise routine periprocedural withdrawal of these drugs to decrease the hemorrhagic risks that may be associated if such therapy is continued in the perioperative period. This approach may be inappropriate as stopping antiplatelet drugs often exposes the patient to a more serious risk, i.e. the risk of developing an arterial thrombosis with its potentially fatal consequences. Moreover, it has been seen that the increase in perioperative bleeding if such drugs are continued is usually of a quantitative nature and does not shift the bleeding complication to a higher risk quality. We, in this mini review, look at the physiological role and pathological implications of platelets, commonly used antiplatelet therapy and how continuation or discontinuation of such therapy in the perioperative period affects the hemorrhagic and thrombotic risks, respectively. Literature on the subject between 1985 and 2008 is reviewed. The consensus that seems to have emerged is that the policy of routine discontinuation of antiplatelet drugs in the perioperative period must be discouraged and risk stratification must be employed while making decisions regarding continuation or temporary discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy. Although antiplatelet drugs may be discontinued in patients at a low risk for an arterial thrombotic event, they must be continued in patients where the risks of bleeding and complications related to excessive bleeding are less than the risks of developing arterial thrombosis.
  13 6,132 627
Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation
Sunil Shroff
July-September 2009, 25(3):348-355
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56203  PMID:19881131
The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the Government brought in a few new amendments as a Gazette with the purpose of putting a stop to organ commerce. The ethics of commerce in organ donation and transplant tourism has been widely criticized by international bodies. The legal and ethical principles that we follow universally with organ donation and transplantation are also important for the future as these may be used to resolve our conflicts related to emerging sciences such as cloning, tissue engineering, and stem cells.
  10 18,048 860
Detrusor underactivity: To tone or not to tone the bladder?
Sriram Krishnamoorthy, Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2009, 25(3):407-408
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56186  PMID:19881143
Objectives: The aim of this review was to review the available evidence in literature for the clinical effectiveness of Bethanechol Chloride in patients with detrusor underactivity. Materials& Methods: We searched all relevant data from Medline and peer-reviewed journals available online on the use of bethanechol in patients with detrusor underactivity. Results: Most reports that suggest a therapeutic clinical benefit with use of bethanechol have all been anecdotal reports and there is no definite clinical evidence available till date to support its clinical usefulness. Conclusion: The current available data have shown to offer no definite benefit with the use of parasympathomimetic agents in patients with DU. One of the meta-analysis has shown bethanechol to be ineffective in promoting bladder emptying.
  7 5,122 237
Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India
Omprakash V Nandimath
July-September 2009, 25(3):343-347
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56202  PMID:19881130
The element of consent is one of the critical issues in medical treatment. The patient has a legal right to autonomy and self determination enshrined within Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. He can refuse treatment except in an emergency situation where the doctor need not get consent for treatment. The consent obtained should be legally valid. A doctor who treats without valid consent will be liable under the tort and criminal laws. The law presumes the doctor to be in a dominating position, hence the consent should be obtained after providing all the necessary information.
  7 7,103 434
Transobturator vaginal tape in comparison to tension-free vaginal tape: A prospective trial with a minimum 12 months follow-up
RB Nerli, Ajay G Kumar, Ashish Koura, Vikram Prabha, SB Alur
July-September 2009, 25(3):321-325
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56183  PMID:19881123
Background: The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is based on the integral theory that the midurethra has an important role in the continence mechanism. Transobturator vaginal tape (TOT) is the same in concept as TVT but it differs from TVT in that, rather than passing through the retropubic space, sling materials are drawn through the obturator foramina. We prospectively compared TVT with TOT with respect to operation-related morbidity and surgical outcomes at a minimum follow up of 12 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were alternatively assigned to the TVT group (18) or the TOT group. Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and I-QOL questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality-of-life questionnaire, long-term complications, and uroflowmetry were evaluated in both groups. Results: The patient characteristics in both the TVT and TOT group were similar. Mean operating time was significantly shorter in the TOT group likened to the TVT group. Conclusions: Both the TVT and TOT procedures are minimally invasive and similar in operation-related morbidity. TOT appears to be as effective as TVT, and safer than TVT for the surgical treatment of SUI in women at 12 months follow-up.
  6 3,615 237
Is stenting required before retrograde intrarenal surgery with access sheath
PM Mahajan, AS Padhye, AA Bhave, YB Sovani, YB Kshirsagar, SS Bapat
July-September 2009, 25(3):326-328
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56185  PMID:19881124
Background: Flexible ureterorenoscopies continue to assume an increasing role in the armamentarium of the endourologist. In many centers around the world, prior stenting is carried out before retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to passively dilate the ureter, which facilitates passage of a flexible ureteroscope with or without an access sheath. In our series, the first stage of passive dilatation with prior stenting was totally avoided without compromising the success of the procedure. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to December 2007, 54 patients with 55 renal units underwent RIRS. The patients were between 28 and 65 years old. All patients had renal stones ranging in size from 8 mm to 22 mm. The mean serum creatinine level was 1.1 mg%. The lower ureter was dilated under 'C - arm' fluoroscopy guidance up to 14 FR. An access sheath of 10/12 Fr was passed over the working guide wire. RIRS (7.5/9.3 Fr) was introduced into the access sheath. The stones were fragmented using a holmium laser. The mean operating time was 85 mins (45-130 mins). Results: In 52 out of 55 renal units (94.5%), a flexible ureteroscope could be passed successfully into the kidney through an access sheath. In 3 of the cases (5.4%), the lower ureter could not be dilated. In these patients, the procedure was staged after passing a 6/26 JJ stent. An X-ray KUB was done at the 3-month follow-up visit. A total of 50 renal units (94.3%) were stone free at the 3-month follow-up visit. Conclusion: In a majority of the cases, RIRS could be accomplished successfully during the first sitting. Single stage RIRS did not alter the subsequent stone clearance or increase the incidence of morbidity or complications.
  6 3,350 214
Ureteroscopy during pregnancy
Michelle J Semins, Brian R Matlaga
July-September 2009, 25(3):291-295
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56173  PMID:19881118
Urolithiasis during pregnancy is an uncommon, but a serious medical problem. Options for the treatment of pregnant women with obstructing stones include ureteral stent placement, percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement, and ureteroscopic stone removal (URS). Although ureteral stent and nephrostomy tube placement have been the historically standard treatment option for pregnant women with obstructing stones, there is an emerging collection of literature that reviews the safety of URS for pregnant women. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1966 through April 2009 to identify all literature on URS in pregnant women. Herein, we review the literature on URS during pregnancy, with a focus on the safety of this approach. We conclude that URS is an appropriate intervention in the pregnant population with urolithiasis; in all cases the procedure should be performed on a properly selected patient by a surgeon with appropriate experience and equipment. With such an approach, complication rates are low and success rates are high. A multidisciplinary approach should be emphasized as a key to a successful outcome.
  6 4,134 450
Emerging role of multi-detector computed tomography in the diagnosis of hematuria following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A case scenario
SE Sivanandam, Georgie Mathew, Sanjay H Bhat
July-September 2009, 25(3):392-394
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56176  PMID:19881138
Persistent hematuria is one of the most dreaded complications following percutanous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Although invasive, a catheter-based angiogram is usually used to localize the bleeding vessel and subsequently embolize it. Advances in imaging technology have now made it possible to use a non invasive multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) angiogram with 3-D reconstruction to establish the diagnosis. We report a case of post-PCNL hemorrhage due to a pseudo aneurysm that was missed by a conventional angiogram and subsequently detected on MDCT angiogram.
  5 2,301 155
Etiopathogenesis of benign prostatic hypeprlasia
Jie Tang, JingChun Yang
July-September 2009, 25(3):312-317
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56179  PMID:19881121
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition affecting men older than 50 years of age. It affects about 10 percent of men under the age of 40, and increases to about 80 percent by 80 years of age. BPH is a hyperplastic process of the fibromuscular stromal and glandular epithelial elements of the prostate. Aging and the presence of the functional testes are the two established risk factors for the development of BPH. The etiopathogenesis of BPH is still largely unresolved, but multiple partially overlapping and complementary theories have been proposed, all of which seem to be operative at least to some extent. This review is focused on recent progress in this area and on the growing consensus for the important mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of BPH.
  5 4,088 478
Medical negligence: Criminal prosecution of medical professionals, importance of medical evidence: Some guidelines for medical practitioners
MS Pandit, Shobha Pandit
July-September 2009, 25(3):379-383
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56207  PMID:19881135
The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. As the medical profession has been brought under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the patients have an easy method of litigation. There should be legal awareness among the doctors that will help them in the proper recording of medical management details. This will help them in defending their case during any allegation of medical negligence.
  4 8,498 364
Lasers are superfluous for the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the developing world
Narmada P Gupta, Ajay Anand
July-September 2009, 25(3):413-414
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56190  PMID:19881145
Lasers have been given much hype as regards their use in surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), especially with its modifications still remains the gold standard treatment for BPH, owing to its efficacy and proven advantages over laser prostatectomy. Cost, unproven long-term durability, steep learning curve, and no advantages of laser prostatectomy over TURP and its modifications, make lasers superfluous in the surgical management of BPH in developing countries.
  3 2,460 192
The evolution of the endourologic management of pediatric stone disease
Marc C Smaldone, Bishoy A Gayed, Michael C Ost
July-September 2009, 25(3):302-311
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56177  PMID:19881120
In the 1980s, the advent of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) revolutionized pediatric stone management and is currently the procedure of choice in treating most upper tract calculi <1.5 cm in children. However, with miniaturization of instruments and refinement of surgical technique the management of pediatric stone disease has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past twenty years. In a growing number of centers, ureteroscopy (URS) is now being performed in cases that previously would have been treated with SWL or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL has replaced open surgical techniques for the treatment of large stone burdens >2 cm with efficacy and complication rates similar to the adult population. Recent results of retrospective reviews of large single institution series demonstrate stone free and complication rates with URS comparable to PCNL and SWL but concerns remain with these techniques regarding renal development and damage to the pediatric urinary tract. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of SWL and URS for upper tract stone burden are needed to reach consensus regarding the most effective primary treatment modality in children. This report provides a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating the indications, techniques, complications, and efficacy of endourologic stone management in children.
  3 3,695 389
Alfuzosin for chronic pelvic pain syndrome: Another placebo?
TJ Nirmal, JC Singh
July-September 2009, 25(3):423-423
  3 1,551 113
Supernumerary kidney presenting as pyonephrosis
Senthilnathan Ramasamy, Jeyakumar Paramasivam, Krishnamohan Janardhanam
July-September 2009, 25(3):389-391
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56175  PMID:19881137
Renal anomalies constitute a majority of all congenital anomalies of urinary tract. Many anomalies warrant surgical intervention and some may not. Supernumerary kidney is an extremely rare anomaly; its association with horseshoe kidney is rare. A bizarre presentation in this patient-made preoperative diagnosis impossible. We report this extremely rare anomaly and its recognition and subsequent management.
  2 3,202 156
Retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy for crossed-fused ectopic kidney
Pranjal Modi, SJ Rizvi, Rahul Gupta, Suhag Patel
July-September 2009, 25(3):401-403
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56182  PMID:19881141
A 25-year-old female presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infection and end stage renal failure. Voiding cystourethrography revealed bilateral Grade IV vesicoureteral reflux with left to right crossed ectopia. A computed tomography scan showed fusion of both kidneys with the left kidney situated at the lower and anterior part of the right orthotopic moiety. A retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy with a right side ureterectomy was carried out.
  2 2,787 136
Antegrade urethrogram: A technique to visualize the proximal bulbous urethral segment in anterior urethral stricture
Apul Goel, Ankush Gupta, Divakar Dalela
July-September 2009, 25(3):415-416
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56193  PMID:19881146
In patients of stricture urethra that are on suprapubic catheter if the proximal bulbous urethral segment is not visualized at the time of voiding cystourethrography, antegrade urethrogram can be done. Through the suprapubic tract ureteric catheter is passed cystoscopically into the proximal urethra and contrast instilled to visualize the proximal urethra.
  2 3,545 282
Patient-doctor relationship: Changing perspectives and medical litigation
K Ganesh
July-September 2009, 25(3):356-360
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56204  PMID:19881132
The patient doctor relational dimer has become complex with the hierarchical or fiduciary manner changing to an equal or un equal relationship. Trust and control are interchangeable, leading to increased patient requirements for disclosure and expectations of a cafeteria approach in diagnoses and management of his/her bodily condition. From any mismatch, there is a potential for medical litigation. In this context, the rise of global consumerism, the explosion of information available on the internet, and the changed manner of the medical profession from being shrouded in mystic / ceremony to trifurcation of medical services to doctoral diagnoses and management, ancillary pharmacy industry, and paramedical services like nursing, counselling and the new age quackery have contributed to this dimer.
  2 5,708 359
Ethics in medical curriculum; Ethics by the teachers for students and society
Karuna Rameshkumar
July-September 2009, 25(3):337-339
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56192  PMID:19881128
There are many ethical issues involved in the practice of modern medicine. It can be a simple one-on-one issue with complex ramifications. The training of medical ethics should be a continuous process. The ideal time to introduce ethics is a subject of many debates. Though it has to be introduced during the undergraduate curriculum, it requires reinforcing during specialty training also. The teaching of medical ethics can utilize various methodologies. There should be a proper evaluation of the ethical aspects learned.
  2 3,822 298
Primary intrarenal teratoma in an adult: A case report and review of literature
TJ Nirmal, S Krishnamoorthy, A Korula
July-September 2009, 25(3):404-406
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56184  PMID:19881142
A 35-year-old male presented with left loin pain. On evaluation, he was diagnosed to have a left renal lower polar mass. He underwent partial nephrectomy. The histopathological examination was suggestive of teratoma of the kidney. We present this case, as intrarenal teratomas in adults are extremely rare and only a very few cases are reported in literature.
  2 2,717 137
Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin A: A promising treatment for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia
SK Agrawal, MM Agarwal, SK Singh
July-September 2009, 25(3):421-423
  2 1,684 179
Isolated renal nocardiosis in a patient with AIDS: Unusual presentation
K Pai, L Rao
July-September 2009, 25(3):395-397
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56178  PMID:19881139
Disseminated or systemic infection with nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that is seen in immunocompromised individuals and can involve any organ. The primary infection in systemic nocardiosis usually occurs in the lungs and subsequently hematogenous dissemination occurs in other organs of the body. Nocardia infection of the kidney usually manifests as multiple pyelonephritic abscesses. We report a case of isolated renal nocardiosis, without involvement of the lungs or other organs in a patient with AIDS who presented with symptoms of renal failure. The nephrectomy specimen showed multiple calculi in the calyceal system and a tumorous mass with necrotic areas, which histologically showed features of nocardiosis. The case is being presented as this is an unusual manifestation of renal nocardiosis.
  1 2,121 132
Modified technique in Freyer's prostatectomy to achieve hemostasis
Vinay V Shahapurkar, Nishant Khare, Avanish V Deshmukh
July-September 2009, 25(3):332-334
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56189  PMID:19881126
This study is an attempt to develop a technique by which complete hemostasis can be achieved on table by giving traction to the Foley's catheter thereby compressing the venous plexus and the avulsed prostatic arteries at the bladder neck by the inflated balloon. A total of 170 cases of BPH were operated by Freyer's Suprapubic Trans-vesicle prostatectomy. In the technique, bladder mucosa is reposited below the balloon and the balloon is inflated to 60 ml of normal saline. The balloon is kept at the bladder neck and traction is applied to the catheter. Traction is maintained by strapping the catheter to the thigh of the patient with sticking plaster for 24-48 h. The average blood loss was 18.9 ml which proves that the Foley's balloon pressure traction method at the bladder neck is effective in achieving hemostasis in patients undergoing open prostatectomy.
  1 5,599 708
Medical negligence liability under the consumer protection act: A review of judicial perspective
SV Joga Rao
July-September 2009, 25(3):361-371
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56205  PMID:19881133
It is important to know what constitutes medical negligence. A doctor owes certain duties to the patient who consults him for illness. A deficiency in this duty results in negligence. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence is adjudicated in the various judicial courts of India will help a doctor to practice his profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence.
  1 22,167 596
Medical records and issues in negligence
Joseph Thomas
July-September 2009, 25(3):384-388
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56208  PMID:19881136
It is very important for the treating doctor to properly document the management of a patient under his care. Medical record keeping has evolved into a science of itself. This will be the only way for the doctor to prove that the treatment was carried out properly. Moreover, it will also be of immense help in the scientific evaluation and review of patient management issues. Medical records form an important part of the management of a patient. It is important for the doctors and medical establishments to properly maintain the records of patients for two important reasons. The first one is that it will help them in the scientific evaluation of their patient profile, helping in analyzing the treatment results, and to plan treatment protocols. It also helps in planning governmental strategies for future medical care. But of equal importance in the present setting is in the issue of alleged medical negligence. The legal system relies mainly on documentary evidence in a situation where medical negligence is alleged by the patient or the relatives. In an accusation of negligence, this is very often the most important evidence deciding on the sentencing or acquittal of the doctor. With the increasing use of medical insurance for treatment, the insurance companies also require proper record keeping to prove the patient's demand for medical expenses. Improper record keeping can result in declining medical claims. It is disheartening to note that inspite of knowing the importance of proper record keeping it is still in a nascent stage in India. It is wise to remember that "Poor records mean poor defense, no records mean no defense". Medical records include a variety of documentation of patient's history, clinical findings, diagnostic test results, preoperative care, operation notes, post operative care, and daily notes of a patient's progress and medications. A properly obtained consent will go a long way in proving that the procedures were conducted with the concurrence of the patient. A properly written operative note can protect a surgeon in case of alleged negligence due to operative complications. It is important that the prescription for drugs should be legible with the name of the patient, date, and the signature of the doctor. An undated prescription can land a doctor in trouble if the patient misuses it. There are also many records that are indirectly related to patient management such as accounts records, service records of the staff, and administrative records, which are also useful as evidences for litigation purposes. Medical recording needs the concerted effort of a number of people involved in patient care. The doctor is the prime person who has to oversee this process and is primarily responsible for history, physical examination, treatment plans, operative records, consent forms, medications used, referral papers, discharge records, and medical certificates. There should be proper recording of nursing care, laboratory data, reports of diagnostic evaluations, pharmacy records, and billing processes. This means that the paramedical and nursing staff also should be trained in proper maintenance of patient records. The medical scene in India extends from smaller clinics to large hospitals. Medical record keeping is a specialized area in bigger teaching and corporate hospitals with separate medical records officers handling these issues. However, it is yet to develop into a proper process in the large number of smaller clinics and hospitals that cater to a large section of the people in India.
  1 10,654 622
Bleomycin induced urethral stricture in Hodgkin's disease
Ritesh Tapkire, N Kathiresan, B Satheesan
July-September 2009, 25(3):398-400
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56180  PMID:19881140
Bleomycin is a glycoprotein that is extensively used in combination with other anti-cancer agents because of its relative lack of hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity. However, pulmonary toxicity is common with bleomycin and limits its therapeutic utility. Urethral stricture as a result of bleomycin toxicity has not been reported in literature. In this case report, a young male patient who developed urethral stricture after bleomycin-based chemotherapy is described and the possible effects of bleomycin on the urethra are discussed.
  - 2,426 141
Do we need ethics in medical practice?
Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2009, 25(3):287-287
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56171  PMID:19881116
  - 1,994 240
Ethical and legal issues in medical practice
Joseph Thomas
July-September 2009, 25(3):335-336
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56191  PMID:19881127
  - 5,697 332
Himadri Sarkar: Premature demise of a genius
Arunava Choudhury
July-September 2009, 25(3):288-290
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56172  PMID:19881117
  - 2,238 218
Dr. Atul Thakre
Gopal Badlani
July-September 2009, 25(3):424-424
  - 1,397 135
Botulinum toxin: An emerging therapy in female bladder outlet obstruction
Aditya A Pradhan
July-September 2009, 25(3):318-320
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56181  PMID:19881122
Introduction: We evaluated the utility of botulinum toxin in functional female bladder outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods: A total of 7 consecutive female patients with bladder outlet obstruction were included. Patients with neurogenic bladder were excluded. All were previously treated with periodic dilations. Diagnosis was based on symptomatology, cystometry, and micturating cystograms. A total of 2 patients had been in chronic retention with residual volumes more than 400 ml. All were managed with an injection of botulinum toxin, 100 units in 2 ml of saline injected with a flexible cystoscopic needle. The site of the injection was deep submucosally, 0.5 ml in each quadrant at the level of the most prominent narrowing seen endoscopically. All the procedures were done as day care procedures under local anaesthesia. After the procedure, no catheter was placed. Patients were followed up for changes in IPSS scores and post void residual urine measurements. In all cases, multiple injections were used. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 48-52 weeks. The IPSS reduced by an average of 12 points. Post void residual urine reduced by 62%. Improvements commenced 4.85 days (average) after the procedure and lasted for an average of 16.8 weeks (range: 10.8-28 weeks). Discussion: There is a gradual improvement in symptoms over time and the maximal effect occurred at 10-14 days. The duration of improvement was approximately 16.8 weeks. All patients were satisfied by the degree of improvement felt. Conclusions: Botulinum toxin proved successful in improving the voiding characteristics. It possibly acts at the zone of hypertonicity at the bladder neck or midurethra. The only disadvantage is the high cost of the drug.
  - 2,570 207
Use of the processes vaginalis: A new technique for reinforcing the neourethra in hypospadias associated with undescended testis
Himanshu Acharya, Shivaji B Mane, Nitin P Dhende, Abu Obeidah
July-September 2009, 25(3):329-331
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56187  PMID:19881125
Context: The incidence of undescended testis (UDT) along with hypospadias varies from 6 to 31%. The simultaneous repair of UDT and hypospadias is rarely done. Herein, we present a novel technique to use processes vaginalis as a vascular cover for neourethra in a hypospadias patient with UDT. We have done urethroplasty and orchiopexy simultaneously. This is the first report concerning the use of processes vaginalis to reinforce the urethra. Aims: Simultaneous repair of hypospadias and undescended testis. Results: Both the patients withstood the procedure well. Postoperative period was uneventful. Patients passed urine in single stream without any fistula. Conclusions: In patients of undescended testis with hypospadias, simultaneous repair with the processes vaginalis flap is an ideal technique with good results. Processes vaginalis is good vascular cover for neourethra.
  - 2,430 158
Against the motion: Lasers are superfluous for the surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the developing world
Anil Varshney, Anshuman Agarwal
July-September 2009, 25(3):409-412
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56188  PMID:19881144
Lasers have arrived in a big way for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The most common ones in use are holmium, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and thulium.They remove the prostatic adenoma either by way of enucleation or ablation. Backed by numerous studies that prove their safety, efficacy and durability, lasers score over TURP in several ways. Their use is associated with less blood loss, shorter catheter time and decreased hospital stay. The fluid absorption during laser prostatectomy is negligible and thus makes it safer for use in cardiac patients. Also there is no chance of a transurethral resection syndrome, the incidence of which is approximately 2% with TURP. Due to superior hemostatic capabilities and non interference lasers can be used in patients on anti coagulants, cardiac pacemaker. Another advantage of laser over TURP is its ability to deal with prostates that are larger in size especially holmium laser which has been used to enucleate glands more than 300 g in size thus completely avoiding the need for open prostatectomy. The amount of tissue removed with enucleation is more thus retreatment rates are less than that of TURP. The initial cost of laser is higher but its capability to treat stones, its use in high risk situations, less morbidity, short hospital stay, and durable results make it an attractive option to treat BPH even in the developing world.
  - 2,887 203
Ethics and contemporary urology practice: Setting out principles
A Mohan
July-September 2009, 25(3):340-342
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56201  PMID:19881129
Several situations of great ethical implications are encountered by physicians in daily urological practice. Informed consent for interventions, selection of patients for operative demonstrations and educational workshops, enrollment of patients in clinical trials, and the use of technology are some issues that call for stringent application of ethical principles in decision making. The issues of autonomy, privacy, rights, duties, and privileges that arise have to pass the tests prescribed by contemporary social mores and regulations. Some of the issues encountered, principles applicable, and covenants and documents that guide decision making are discussed.
  - 2,429 186
Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective
MS Pandit, Shobha Pandit
July-September 2009, 25(3):372-378
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.56206  PMID:19881134
A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.
  - 10,542 449
Defining the role of antioxidants in the prevention of prostate cancer
Hemant R Pathak, Bhupendra P Singh
July-September 2009, 25(3):417-418
  - 2,049 184
Totally tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Is it safe?
TJ Nirmal, Adhikary Samiran
July-September 2009, 25(3):418-419
  - 1,504 166
Endocrine treatment in advanced prostate cancer: When to start?
AV Choudhrie, JC Singh
July-September 2009, 25(3):419-420
  - 1,472 135
The current role of Active Surveillance in early prostate cancer
RP Shrinivas, Deepak Dubey
July-September 2009, 25(3):420-421
  - 1,346 131
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