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   2009| April-June  | Volume 25 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 24, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer
Parag Gupta, Manoj Jain, Rakesh Kapoor, K Muruganandham, Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mandhani
April-June 2009, 25(2):207-210
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52916  PMID:19672348
Purpose: To determine the impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of histologically confirmed bladder cancer in India. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, records of patients with bladder cancer were evaluated for age and gender at presentation, clinical symptoms, cystoscopic finding, history of smoking, and histopathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients were identified from the computer-based hospital information system and the case files of patients. Results: A total of 97% of the patients presented with painless hematuria. The mean age was 60.2 4.4 years old (range: 18-90 years old) and the male to female ratio was 8.6:1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was the most common histological variety, which was present in 97.71% (470 of 481) of the patients. A total of 26% of the patients had muscle invasive disease at the time of presentation. However, 34.5% (166 of 481) of the patients did not show any evidence of detrusor muscle in their biopsy specimen. In patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinoma, 55% had p Ta while 45% had p T1. Overall, 44.7% (215 of 481) of the patients had low-grade disease. Among patients younger than 60 years old, low-grade (51.0% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.006) and low-stage (77.1% vs. 70.8%; P = 0.119) disease were more prevalent than in patients older than 60 years old. The incidence of smoking was much higher among males compared with females (74% vs. 22%). Conclusion: TCC is the predominant cancer, with significant male preponderance among Indian patients. Younger-aged patients have low-grade disease. Hematuria is the most common presentation and greater awareness is needed not to overlook bladder cancer.
  11 4,287 371
Evaluating graft function in pediatric recipients for living donor renal transplantation: Is laparoscopic donor nephrectomy safe?
Shashikant Mishra, Arvind Ganpule, V Muthu, Ravindra B Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
April-June 2009, 25(2):195-198
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.51358  PMID:19672345
Objective: To evaluate the surgical and functional outcomes of laparoscopic graft procurement in pediatric patients undergoing renal transplantation. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of the cohort records of 54 pediatric living donor renal transplant recipients from 1985 through June 2006 was performed. We compared results of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN, n = 15) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN, n = 39). Parameters analysed included donor technique and morbidity, operative complications, immediate postoperative renal function, the incidence of early and delayed graft function, and long-term graft survival. Results: The mean age of these recipients was 14.8 years (5-18) in the LDN group and 13.9 years (8-18) in ODN group. Serum creatinine (mg/dl) was 1.5 0.7 vs 1.8 1.3 at day 1 (P = 0.20), 1.0 0.3 vs 1.4 1.3 at day 2 (P = 0.12), 1.1 0.9 vs 1.3 1.0 at day 7 (P = 0.25), 1.2 0.5 vs 1.6 1.8 (P = 0.20) at day 14, 1.1 0.7 vs 1.2 1.4 (P = 0.39) at 1 month in LDN vs ODN groups, respectively. Early graft function was 35.7 vs 46.4% in the respective groups. There were two delayed graft function and one graft nonfunction in ODN group. Over all graft and patient survival at 1 year was 86.67 and 82.22% (P = 0.34) in LDN and ODN groups, respectively. Conclusion: Pediatric recipients of the LDN grafts have outcomes comparable to those of ODN graft recipients. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is safe and efficacious for graft procurement for pediatric recipients.
  8 3,143 186
REVIEW ARTICLES
Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer: Current management issues
Aditya Bagrodia, Christopher J DiBlasio, Robert W Wake, Ithaar H Derweesh
April-June 2009, 25(2):169-176
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52907  PMID:19672340
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common visceral malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an established treatment for locally advanced and metastatic CaP, and often used as primary therapy in select patients. As ADT has continued to assume an important role in the treatment of CaP, a greater appreciation of potential adverse effects has been acknowledged in men receiving this therapy. Given that all treatments for CaP are frequently associated with some degree of morbidity and can have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), the potential benefits of any treatment, including ADT, must outweigh the risks, particularly in patients with asymptomatic disease. Once the choice to proceed with ADT is complete, it is imperative for the urologist to possess comprehensive knowledge of the potential adverse effects of ADT. This permits the urologist to properly monitor for, perhaps diminish, and to treat any linked morbidities. Patient complaints related to ADT such as a decrease in HRQOL, cognitive and sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, endocrine abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and alterations in skeletal and body composition are commonly reported throughout the literature. Herein, we review the principal adverse effects linked with ADT in CaP patients and suggest various universal strategies that may diminish these potential adverse consequences associated with this therapy.
  8 5,539 561
CASE REPORTS
Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney: A rare tumor with an atypical presentation
Vimal Dassi, Krishanu Das, Bhupendra P Singh, Sanjaya K Swain
April-June 2009, 25(2):269-271
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52932  PMID:19672366
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a tumor of the soft tissues with a unique chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) that can be detected by polymerase chain reaction in tissue homogenates. Here we present a case of a 20-year-old female presenting PSS of the left kidney with caval thrombus. The diagnosis was corroborated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Similar cases of PSS of kidney with tumor extension in the inferior vena cava are extremely rare and to date, approximately three cases have been reported in the literature.
  7 3,677 205
REVIEW ARTICLE
The growing teratoma syndrome: Current review of the literature
Vladislav Gorbatiy, Philippe E Spiess, Louis L Pisters
April-June 2009, 25(2):186-189
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52910  PMID:19672343
Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare condition among patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumors who present with enlarging metastatic masses during appropriate systemic chemotherapy and in the context of normalized serum markers. This article reviews the current pertinent scientific literature on the diagnosis and management of GTS.
  7 6,731 435
REVIEW ARTICLES
Opportunistic infections (noncytomegalovirus) in live related renal transplant recipients
PB Vinod, Raj Kumar Sharma
April-June 2009, 25(2):161-168
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.39547  PMID:19672339
The purpose of review was increasing number of opportunistic infections with use of newer immunosuppression and difficulty in diagnosis and management of such patients. For this review, MEDLINE database was searched from 2000 to 2006 with the keywords of opportunistic infections in renal transplantation. Opportunistic infection is a serious clinical complication in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. The two major factors for successful renal transplantation are better control of rejection and better prevention and treatment of infection. In renal allograft recipient, immunosuppressive drug therapy is the major cause of immunocompromised status and occurrence of infections, which arise most commonly as a result of invasion by endogenous opportunists. The opportunistic infections with varicella zoster viruses, parvovirus B-19, polyomavirus, nocardia and mucormycosis in immunosuppressed patients were present with severe complications that are reviewed in this article. As a result of use of strong immunosuppressive drugs like tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetyl (MMF) and antirejection therapy with antithymocyte globulins (ATG), these infections are now seen frequently, so they should always be included in differential diagnostic consideration. New diagnostic procedures and new treatment strategies are required to allow early detection and successful treatment of opportunistic infections in kidney transplant recipients.
  7 9,861 571
CASE REPORTS
An innovative surgical technique for treating penile incarceration injury caused by heavy metallic ring
SJ Baruah, PK Bagchi, SK Barua, PM Deka
April-June 2009, 25(2):267-268
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52942  PMID:19672365
Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into four groups. Surgical techniques are reserved for the advanced grades (Grades IV and V). We describe an innovative surgical technique, which can be adopted in Grades II and III injuries.
  6 3,868 209
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dorsolateral onlay urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures by a unilateral urethral mobilization approach
Bhupendra P Singh, Hemant R Pathak, Mukund G Andankar
April-June 2009, 25(2):211-214
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52919  PMID:19672349
Context: For management of long segment anterior urethral stricture, dorsal onlay urethroplasty is currently the most favored single-stage procedure. Conventional dorsal onlay urethroplasty requires circumferential mobilization of the urethra, which might cause ischemia of the urethra in addition to chordee. Aims: To determine the feasibility and short-term outcomes of applying a dorsolateral free graft to treat anterior urethral stricture by unilateral urethral mobilization through a perineal approach. Settings and Design: A prospective study from September 2005 to March 2008 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsolateral free buccal mucosa graft. The pendulous urethra was accessed by penile eversion through the perineal wound. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies on one side and was only mobilized from the midline on the ventral aspect to beyond the midline on the dorsal aspect. The urethra was opened in the dorsal midline over the stricture. The buccal mucosa graft was secured on the ventral tunica of the corporal bodies. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and median. Results: After a follow-up of 12-30 months, one recurrence developed and 1 patient needed an internal urethrotomy. Conclusions: A unilateral urethral mobilization approach for dorsolateral free graft urethroplasty is feasible for panurethral strictures of any length with good short-term success.
  6 3,459 313
REVIEW ARTICLES
Renal neuroendocrine tumors
Brian R Lane, George Jour, Ming Zhou
April-June 2009, 25(2):155-160
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52905  PMID:19672338
Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma) can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.
  6 4,301 515
The routine use of prostate-specific antigen for early detection of cancer prostate in India: Is it justified?
Deepak Dubey
April-June 2009, 25(2):177-184
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52908  PMID:19672341
Background: The use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer is a widely debated issue. The average Indian urologist is faced with the dilemma of whether PSA testing should be routinely offered to men over 50 years of age. The Urological Society of India is yet to issue any guidelines on PSA testing. This article attempts to explore scientific evidence dealing with this controversial subject. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed using the words 'PSA screening', 'prostate cancer statistics', and 'PSA screening guidelines'. The relevant articles were then analysed for evidence regarding the utility of PSA screening. Results: Prostate cancer does not qualify to be categorized as a major health problem in India. The natural history of screen-detected cancer is not known. Prostate-specific antigen testing for early detection of prostate cancer has questionable benefits and has a potential to cause harm to asymptomatic individuals. There is no consensus amongst learned medical societies as to what should be the best approach for PSA testing. Most organizations caution against widespread PSA screening and emphasize on informed consent and patient counseling with regard to PSA testing. Randomized prospective trials are ongoing to assess to the true impact of screening on prostate cancer mortality. Conclusions: There is no scientific rationale to advocate routine use of PSA for early detection of prostate cancer in Indian males. Results of randomized screening trials are awaited to clarify on this issue.
  6 3,358 537
SYMPOSIUM
Urology training in India: Balancing national needs with global perspectives
Monish Aron
April-June 2009, 25(2):254-256
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52938  PMID:19672361
  6 4,392 256
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seminal vesicle sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using a low-energy source: Better continence and potency
Shrenik J Shah, Vishal Goyal, Rajesh Sachar, Arup Kumar Nath, Nitesh Jain, Kalpesh Kapadia
April-June 2009, 25(2):199-202
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52913  PMID:19672346
Objectives: Ongoing with the newer developments in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), we report our experience in a consecutive series of 42 patients with a mean 18-month follow-up. We also studied the use of a low-energy source, especially in the region of the prostatic apex and the neurovascular bundle and evaluated its outcome on continence and potency. Materials and Methods: Between November 2003 and December 2008, 50 patients aged 50-80 yrs underwent LRP with vesicourethral anastomosis and of these, 42 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 months were selected for the study. Of these, the initial 16 patients were operated by the routine method and the 26 patients operated in the later part of our experience were operated upon using a minimal energy source. Results: The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-60). Continence was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Eleven of the 16 patients in Group I were continent as compared with 21 of 26 patients in Group II. The difference in continence rates was mainly due to less use of electrocautery and harmonic scalpel at the bladder neck. Of the eight patients who were potent pre-operatively in Group I, four remained potent 3 months after LRP. In Group II, 20 of the 26 patients were potent pre-operatively and 16 remained potent 3 months after LRP. Conclusions: Use of a low-energy source at the bladder neck and neurovascular bundle, sparing of seminal vesicle, and leaving behind a long, healthy stump of the urethra during apical dissection, is associated with better continence and potency without compromising oncological outcome.
  5 2,642 160
Prospective evaluation of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis before cystoscopy
Kamil Cam, Ali Kayikci, Ali Erol
April-June 2009, 25(2):203-206
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52914  PMID:19672347
Background: The aim of this study was to prospectively compare single-dose intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis vs. no prophylaxis before minor cystoscopic procedures, including punch biopsy and transurethral resection (TUR) of small bladder tumors. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with a mean age of 47.3 years old (range: 19-84 years old) with initial negative urine cultures were recruited. All patients underwent a diagnostic cystoscopy. Patients were then randomized into 2 groups: o0 ne group that did not receive antibiotics (100 patients) and the other group that received antibiotic treatment (100 patients with a single intravenous dose of cefoperazone). All patients had urine analysis and urine cultures on the second day after the operation. Additionally, clinical parameters including fever and dysuria were recorded. In 15% of the patients, incidental additional interventions such as punch biopsy or TUR of a small bladder tumor that were similarly distributed in both groups were performed. Results: In 1 patient from the antibiotic group and 2 patients from the no prophylaxis group, the urine cultures after cystoscopy were positive. No statistically significant difference was observed between these groups based on the microbiological and clinical parameters. Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that no antibiotic prophylaxis is required before diagnostic cystoscopy in patients without bacteriuria. But, the absolute risk of infection was small, suggesting that a much larger study is required.
  5 4,220 256
SYMPOSIUM
Basic science research in urology training
D Eberli, A Atala
April-June 2009, 25(2):217-220
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52924  PMID:19672351
The role of basic science exposure during urology training is a timely topic that is relevant to urologic health and to the training of new physician scientists. Today, researchers are needed for the advancement of this specialty, and involvement in basic research will foster understanding of basic scientific concepts and the development of critical thinking skills, which will, in turn, improve clinical performance. If research education is not included in urology training, future urologists may not be as likely to contribute to scientific discoveries. Currently, only a minority of urologists in training are currently exposed to significant research experience. In addition, the number of physician-scientists in urology has been decreasing over the last two decades, as fewer physicians are willing to undertake a career in academics and perform basic research. However, to ensure that the field of urology is driving forward and bringing novel techniques to patients, it is clear that more research-trained urologists are needed. In this article we will analyse the current status of basic research in urology training and discuss the importance of and obstacles to successful addition of research into the medical training curricula. Further, we will highlight different opportunities for trainees to obtain significant research exposure in urology.
  4 2,675 219
CASE REPORTS
Small-cell prostate carcinoma: A retrospective analysis of five newly reported cases
Kyle R Brownback, Joseph Renzulli, Ronald DeLellis, James R Myers
April-June 2009, 25(2):259-263
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52940  PMID:19672363
Five cases of small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of prostate were identified, at the Rhode Island Hospital and the Miriam Hospital from 1984 to 2006, with an average age of 71 years at the time of diagnosis. Three of these patients had a prior diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma, with all of the five patients receiving anti-androgen treatment. The average time between the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and of SCC in these patients was 6.7 years. The PSA levels varied greatly, with two patients possessing markedly elevated levels and the remaining patients with normal levels. Approximately 3/5 patients developed liver metastases, 2/5 patients had bone metastases, and 1/5 patients developed carcinomatous meningitis. Of the four patients who expired, the median survival time after diagnosis of SCC was 3.6 months (0.5-12 months).
  2 6,089 250
SYMPOSIUM
Should we be concerned about losing urology territory to other specialties?
Michael Marberger
April-June 2009, 25(2):221-224
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52925  PMID:19672352
  2 2,549 180
UROSCAN
Management of multiple/staghorn kidney stones: Open surgery versus PCNL (with or without ESWL)
Madhu S Agrawal, Sanjeet Kumar Singh, Himanshu Singh
April-June 2009, 25(2):284-285
PMID:19672375
  2 5,803 361
EDITORIAL
Training of a urology resident
Nitin S Kekre
April-June 2009, 25(2):153-153
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52903  PMID:19672336
  1 1,971 247
EVIDENCE BASED UROLOGY
Prophylactic antibiotics in vesicoureteric reflux: Evidence-based analysis
MS Ansari
April-June 2009, 25(2):276-277
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52926  PMID:19672369
Objectives: The aim of this review was to systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in cases of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Materials and Methods: We searched the relevant data on medical management of VUR and the date of last search was June 2008. The search included both randomized controlled trials as well as the nonrandomized trials and the data sources were; MEDLINE, online peer reviewed journals, Cochrane database and abstracts from conference proceedings. Results: Barring few most of the studies published on medical management were nonrandomized. Besides being small in number many of these studies were of poor-quality and poorly designed eventually failing in giving a reliable answer in this regard. Few of the studies suggest that the children with low grade VUR might do well even without antibiotic prophylaxis. Conclusions : In the absence of properly designed, randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up the question of antibiotic prophylaxis in cases of VUR remains unanswered in large part of it. Whether to give prophylactic antibiotics or not would ultimately need a shared decision-making involving both the treating physician and the parents assessing both the risks and the benefits.
  1 2,790 283
SYMPOSIUM
Optimal strategies for literature search
Siddharth Siva
April-June 2009, 25(2):246-250
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52936  PMID:19672359
With the large number of urological journals now indexed in online search engines, just reading a few journals will not keep urologists up to date on the latest developments. This paper proposes search strategies to quicken the search and retrieval of the required literature, so that the best evidence may be used to guide practice. This survey of optimal strategies begins with framing the inquiry so the search engine returns results within an accurate scope. The researcher must also isolate the type of evidence appropriate for the scenario and determine its validity. Finally, regardless of the extent of their institution's subscriptions, researchers should be able to attain the complete document. Besides search strategies, this article extensively reviews sources of information valuable to urologists, including databases and web links.
  1 3,232 294
UROPATHOLOGY
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney: Clinicopathologic features
Ranganath Ratnagiri, Shirley Sunder Singh, Urmila Majhi, Kathiresan , Sateeshan
April-June 2009, 25(2):274-275
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52928  PMID:19672368
Neuroendocrine tumors are rare entities which can arise in various sites of the body. The presence of both neural and endocrine elements in conjunction characterises these tumors pathologically. Most of these tumors are non secretory in nature, and arise in organs where there may not be any neuroendocrine elements. Carcinoid tumors are the most common entities reported in the kidney. There have been only a couple of case series of non-carcinoid neuroendocrine tumors of the kidney reported in literature. Surgical resection appears to be the best available treatment modality. Chemotherapy has been attempted with dismal results. The biological behaviour is determined by the occurrence of metastases to the liver or lung. We report a patient with a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney, who underwent radical resection and is doing well on follow-up. The diagnosis was confirmed by immune-histochemistry.
  1 2,934 171
CASE REPORTS
Post-transplant small cell carcinoma arising in the native kidney of renal transplant recipient
Wenhao Tang, Lulin Ma, Xiaofei Hou, Longtao Yan, Amit Mani Upadhyay
April-June 2009, 25(2):264-266
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52941  PMID:19672364
Small cell carcinoma (SCC) originating from kidney is extremely rare. To date, there has been no reported case of primary SCC of renal transplant recipients' (RTRs)' own kidney. Here, we report the first case of primary SCC of RTRs' own kidney. Resection of bilateral native kidneys, possessing whole length of ureters and small cuffs of bladder along with a neoplasm located in her right kidney, was performed on a 68-year-old female patient, five years after renal transplantation. The immuno-histochemical result confirmed mixed SCC of the right kidney (SCC combined with little transitional cell carcinoma). Postoperatively, platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (Cisplatin combined with Gemcitabine) was given, and the patient is still alive with well-functioning transplanted kidney.
  - 2,429 148
Use of the processus vaginalis: A new technique for reinforcing the neourethra in hypospadias associated with undescended testis
Shivaji B Mane, Himanshu Acharya, Nitin P Dhende, Abu Obeidah
April-June 2009, 25(2):272-273
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52930  PMID:19672367
Incidence of the undescended testis (UDT) along with hypospadias varies from 6 to 31%. The repair of UDT and hypospadias is rarely done simultaneously. Here we present a novel technique that uses processus vaginalis as vascular cover for neourethra in hyposapdias patients with UDT. We have done urethroplasty and orchiopexy simultaneously. This is the first report of processus vaginalis being used to reinforce the urethra.
  - 2,106 154
COMMENTS
Editorial Comment

April-June 2009, 25(2):185-185
PMID:19672342
  - 1,312 113
GUEST EDITORIAL
Urology training: From schelp to jaunt
Mahendra Bhandari
April-June 2009, 25(2):215-216
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52922  PMID:19672350
  - 1,688 172
LEGENDS IN INDIAN UROLOGY
Late Dr. Sarinder Man Singh: "A thorough gentleman"
Narmada P Gupta
April-June 2009, 25(2):154-154
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52904  PMID:19672337
  - 2,159 213
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men
Apul Goel, Sandeep Kumar, SM Natu, D Dalela, RJ Sinha, S Awasthi
April-June 2009, 25(2):190-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52911  PMID:19672344
Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University's ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60). The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM) Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5%) to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.
  - 3,606 295
SYMPOSIUM
Urologic education and training: A global perspective diary of a urologist as a trainee: My Johns Hopkins experience
Craig Rogers
April-June 2009, 25(2):225-227
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52927  PMID:19672353
  - 1,792 198
Diary of a trainee urologist in SGPGI
Anil Mandhani
April-June 2009, 25(2):228-229
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52929  PMID:19672354
  - 2,228 280
Diary of a urologist as a trainee at AIIMS
Rajeev Kumar
April-June 2009, 25(2):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52931  PMID:19672355
  - 3,735 301
Encouraging scholastic publishing by urologic trainees
WD Steers
April-June 2009, 25(2):234-236
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52933  PMID:19672356
There are many reasons why urologic trainees should publish scholarly work: Personal, professional, and institutional. Publishing by trainees creates an environment that improves the specialty of urology, maintains the quality of our literature, and promotes professionalism of our practitioners. Strategies to encourage scholastic publishing distil down to providing recognition, time, and support to the individual trainee.
  - 2,056 151
Inspiring urology trainees to enter academic careers
Gabriel P Haas, Ching Y Wang
April-June 2009, 25(2):237-240
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52934  PMID:19672357
The physician-scientist in academic medical centers has been called as 'an endangered species'. Adverse socioeconomic pressures, lack of dedicated research time, and increasing difficulties in obtaining grant support, make it more and more difficult to attract talented individuals for this career path, and consequently to recruit and retain them in the urology departments. The challenges facing the young academic faculty, physician-scientists, and the research trainees represent a danger to the future of academic medicine. Only a concerted effort to balance the financial disincentives, providing a protected time, a nurturing environment, and the emphasis on outstanding mentors and role models, can secure the continued research and academic success of urology programs. The disproportionate representation of women and the minorities among academic faculty must be recognized and addressed.
  - 2,565 164
Statistics: The stethoscope of a thinking urologist
Arun S Sivanandam
April-June 2009, 25(2):241-245
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52935  PMID:19672358
Understanding statistical terminology and the ability to appraise clinical research findings and statistical tests are critical to the practice of evidence-based medicine. Urologists require statistics in their toolbox of skills in order to successfully sift through increasingly complex studies and realize the drawbacks of statistical tests. Currently, the level of evidence in urology literature is low and the majority of research abstracts published for the American Urological Association (AUA) meetings lag behind for full-text publication because of a lack of statistical reporting. Underlying these issues is a distinct deficiency in solid comprehension of statistics in the literature and a discomfort with the application of statistics for clinical decision-making. This review examines the plight of statistics in urology and investigates the reason behind the white-coat aversion to biostatistics. Resources such as evidence-based medicine websites, primers in statistics, and guidelines for statistical reporting exist for quick reference by urologists. Ultimately, educators should take charge of monitoring statistical knowledge among trainees by bolstering competency requirements and creating sustained opportunities for statistics and methodology exposure.
  - 2,562 229
Urological education in India: A status report
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
April-June 2009, 25(2):251-253
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52937  PMID:19672360
  - 2,429 256
Diary of a urologist as a trainee in USA
Ashutosh Tewari, Rajiv Yadav
April-June 2009, 25(2):257-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.52939  PMID:19672362
  - 2,159 234
UROSCAN
Transplantation of kidneys with small renal tumors: A novel idea?
Sameer Grover, Samiran Das Adhikary, Nitin Kekre
April-June 2009, 25(2):278-279
PMID:19672370
  - 1,435 131
Does antenatal pelvic floor muscle training prevent stress urinary incontinence in primi-gravidae?
Gaurav Gupta, Santosh Kumar
April-June 2009, 25(2):279-280
PMID:19672371
  - 1,847 177
A novel approach to management of nocturia in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia
Vengetesh K Sengottayan, Pawan Vasudeva, Divakar Dalela
April-June 2009, 25(2):280-281
PMID:19672372
  - 2,426 294
What is the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced and lymph node-positive bladder cancer after radical cystectomy?
Ruchir Maheshwari, Aneesh Srivastava
April-June 2009, 25(2):281-282
PMID:19672373
  - 1,752 158
What happens to the patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who refuse cystectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy?
Ruchir Maheshwari, Aneesh Srivastava
April-June 2009, 25(2):282-283
PMID:19672374
  - 2,914 192
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