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   2008| July-September  | Volume 24 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 22, 2008

 
 
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SYMPOSIUM
Incidence, etiopathogenesis and pathological aspects of genitourinary tuberculosis in India: A journey revisited
Prasenjit Das, Arvind Ahuja, Siddhartha Datta Gupta
July-September 2008, 24(3):356-361
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42618  PMID:19468469
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the major health problems in India. Genitourinary tuberculosis comprises 20% of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and is the most common extrapulmonary system to be affected by this disease. The recent surge in the incidence of HIV-infected patients in India has further ignited the fury. Though the members of the Mycobacterium species are well identified, the incidence could not be controlled due to its complex etiopathogenesis and genetic background. Pathological Spectrum: The spectrum of pathological changes of genitourinary tuberculosis is wide, which varies from normal morphology to markedly scarred kidney, bladder, and epididymis with autocystectomy. A thorough knowledge is required to prevent the end-stage complications. The sequel can be detrimental for the patient's physical, behavioral, psychological, and financial health. Diagnostic Dilemmas: Though culture and polymerase chain reaction are available for the detection of tuberculosis, the sensitivity and specificity varies widely and one should be aware. Conclusions: A thorough knowledge of epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, spectrum of the disease and the possible sequels, will help better and effective management of the disease.
  8,406 1,558 11
Clinical presentation and diagnostic approach in cases of genitourinary tuberculosis
Rakesh Kapoor, MS Ansari, Anil Mandhani, Anil Gulia
July-September 2008, 24(3):401-405
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42626  PMID:19468477
Objective: We herein describe the various modes of presentation in genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) and a simple diagnostic approach to it. Materials and Methods: We made a literature search through Medline database and various other peer-reviewed online journals to study the various modes of presentation in GUTB. We reviewed over 100 articles published in the last 10 years (1998 -- 2007), which were tracked through the key words like GUTB and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Results: GUTB has varied presentation and the most common way of presentation is in the form of irritative voiding symptoms, which are found in more than 50% of the patients. The usual frequency of organ involvement is: kidney, bladder, fallopian tube, and scrotum. The usual tests used to diagnose GUTB are the demonstration of mycobacterium in urine or body fluid and radiographic examination. Intravenous urography (IVU) has been considered to be one of the most useful tests for the anatomical as well as the functional details of kidneys and ureters. In cases of renal failure, MRI can be used. Newer examinations such as radiometric liquid culture systems (i.e., BACTEC , Becton Dickinson,USA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) give rapid results and are highly sensitive in the identification of mycobacterium. Conclusion: GUTB can involve any part of the genitourinary system and presentation may vary from vague urinary symptoms to chronic kidney disease. Newer tests like radiometric liquid culture systems and polymerase chain reaction give rapid results and carry high diagnostic value.
  8,252 1,675 11
Tuberculosis of the prostate and urethra: A review
Nitin Gupta, AK Mandal, SK Singh
July-September 2008, 24(3):388-391
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42623  PMID:19468474
Genitourinary tuberculosis contributes to 10-14% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and is a major health problem in India. Prostate tuberculosis is uncommon and is usually found incidentally following transurethral resection. The most common mode of involvement is hematogenous, though descending infection and direct intracanalicular extension is known. Predisposing factors include prior tubercular infection, immuno-compromised status, previous BCG therapy. The presentation is diffuse caseating epitheloid cell granulomas, which can be confirmed by prostate biopsy. Urine PCR has good sensitivity (95.5%) and specificity ( 98.12%) in diagnosis. Imaging techniques like TRUS and CT/MRI also allow good visualization of the lesion and its extension. Urethral tuberculosis is very rare and is usually secondary to upper tract or genital tuberculosis. The presentation may be acute urethritis or chronic stricture or fistulae. The treatment of choice is chemotherapy with 3-4 anti tubercular drugs for initial 6-12 weeks and later 2 drugs for additional 3-6 months. Surgery is usually reserved for cases where chemotherapy fails and is done after 4-6 weeks of ATT. With a high index of suspicion it may be possible to diagnose a larger number of cases of prostatic and urethral tuberculosis especially in this country where tuberculosis is almost endemic.
  8,260 988 13
REVIEW ARTICLES
Strategies for prostate cancer prevention: Review of the literature
H Krishna Moorthy, P Venugopal
July-September 2008, 24(3):295-302
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42608  PMID:19468457
The goal of primary chemoprevention is to decrease the incidence of a given cancer, simultaneously reducing treatment-related adverse events, cost of treatment of the disease and mortality. Prostate cancer is an attractive and appropriate target for primary prevention because of its high incidence and prevalence, increased disease-related mortality, long latency and molecular pathogenesis and epidemiological data indicating that modifiable environmental factors may decrease risk. Various agents have been suggested to prevent prostate cancer and many clinical trials are currently on. Ultimately the adoption of a preventive strategy hinges on its potential benefits weighed against the potential risks of the specific agents used. This article is aimed to examine the experimental and epidemiological data spanning a period of 1998 to 2007, demonstrating the chemopreventive activity, safety and toxicity of various nutritional elements and other agents that can help prevent prostate cancer and/or slow disease progression.
  7,766 727 2
Practical management of nocturia in urology
Myeong Heon Jin, Du Geon Moon
July-September 2008, 24(3):289-294
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42607  PMID:19468456
Until last decades, nocturia has been considered as an irritative symptom of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the nocturia is unresponsive symptoms to various modalities of BPH treatment. More recently, it has been recognized that the prostate is not so quite important as previously believed, as nocturia is equally common in women. The understanding of nocturia has been much changed in last decade; it is a highly prevalent condition, and symptoms in men and women are really no different either quantitatively or qualitatively. The successful introduction of desmopressin (l-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin, DDAVP) to decrease nocturnal urine output in severe nocturia which resistant to conventional BPH treatment and in women demonstrated new perspectives in management of nocturia. We reviewed the definition and etiologies of nocturia, offering the current diagnostic procedures and standards of care.
  7,635 716 9
SYMPOSIUM
Reproductive tract tuberculosis and male infertility
Rajeev Kumar
July-September 2008, 24(3):392-395
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42624  PMID:19468475
Infertility is an uncommon manifestation of genitourinary tract tuberculosis. Anatomic obstruction by granulomas or distortion of the normal anatomy by fibrosis surrounding the reproductive tract structures is the commonest cause of infertility. The diagnosis is usually based on a suggestive history along with evidence of granulomatous infection on a tissue sample. The management depends on the site of obstruction and surgery is usually helpful only in cases with discrete ejaculatory duct obstruction. However, most other patients are candidates for in-vitro fertilization and have a prognosis similar to that in men with other causes of obstructive azoospermia.
  6,700 913 8
Reconstructive bladder surgery in genitourinary tuberculosis
Narmada Prasad Gupta, Anup Kumar, Sachit Sharma
July-September 2008, 24(3):382-387
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42622  PMID:19468473
Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) occurs in 15-20% cases of pulmonary tuberculosis with a prevalence of 400 per 100,000 population. Reconstructive surgery for GUTB is required for cases with grossly distorted and dysfunctional anatomy that are unlikely to regress with chemotherapy alone. In the recent past, there has been a tremendous increase in the variety of reconstructive procedures for the urinary bladder, used in the management of GUTB. Augmentation cystoplasty includes the goals of increasing bladder capacity, while retaining as much of bladder as possible. Various bowel segments (from the stomach to the sigmoid colon) have been used for bladder reconstruction. The choice of material for reconstruction is purely the surgeon's prerogative--his skill, the ease, the mobility and length of mesentery (allowing bowel to reach the bladder neck without tension and maintaining an adequate blood supply). The presence or absence of concomitant reflux is of considerable importance. In the former, an ileocystoplasty with implantation of ureter to the proximal end of the isolated ileal loop and anastomosis of the distal end of the ileal loop to the bladder neck and trigone is advocated. In the latter case, the ureterovesical valve is preserved and colocystoplasty is preferred, wherein the sigmoid colon on being opened along its antimesentric border is joined to the trigone and bladder neck and then to itself to form a capacious pouch. Gastrocystoplasty reduces the risk of acidosis but is associated with complications like hypochloremic alkalosis and 'hematuria-dysuria' syndrome. Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction is a feasible option, suitable in cases of tubercular thimble bladder with a markedly reduced capacity (as little as 15 ml), where an augmentation alone may be associated with anastomatic narrowing or poor relief of symptoms. In this article, we review the various bladder reconstruction options used for the surgical management of GUTB, along with their indications and complications.
  6,491 1,097 11
Options in the management of tuberculous ureteric stricture
Apul Goel, D Dalela
July-September 2008, 24(3):376-381
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42621  PMID:19468472
Ureteric stricture is a feared manifestation of genitourinary tuberculosis (TB) with the commonest site being the lower ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the management options for this condition. Literature search was done using PubMed and all articles on TB and ureteric stricture were reviewed published between 1990 till September 2007. The exact site and length of stricture must be defined with radioimaging (intravenous urography, retrograde, or antegrade pyelography) and renal function be quantified. The treatment of stricture mostly requires some kind of intervention after a brief period of antituberculous medicines with or without steroids. For uncomplicated/simple strictures (short segment, passable, with renal function >25%, good bladder capacity) endourologic option should be used which usually means double-J stenting with or without balloon dilatation. For complicated/complex strictures (long segment, dense fibrosis, with renal function <20%, small bladder capacity) regular surgical options should be considered which usually means ureteroureterostomy or ureteropyelostomy for upper ureteric strictures, intubated ureterostomy, or transureteroureterostomy for midureteric strictures, psoas hitch/Boari flap for lower ureteric strictures or ileal ureter/autotransplantation for whole length/multiple strictures.
  6,403 1,066 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Treatment of ureteral stones: A prospective randomized controlled trial on comparison of Ho:YAG laser and pneumatic lithotripsy
Robab Maghsoudi, Mohsen Amjadi, Davood Norizadeh, Hassan Hassanzadeh
July-September 2008, 24(3):352-354
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.39549  PMID:19468467
Objectives: To study the treatment of ureteric stones by HO:YAG laser lithotripsy and pneumatic lithotripsy and to evaluate the results of the two treatment modalities to assess effectiveness and complications. Materials and Methods: Over 1-year period, a total of 79 patients with 82 ureteral stones were randomized into two groups. In group 1 (39 cases with 41 ureteral stones) ureteroscopic HO:YAG laser lithotripsy was performed using a rigid 8 Fr-ureteroscope (LL group). In group 2 (40 cases with 41 ureteral stones) pneumatic lithotripsy was performed in like manner. Efficacy safety and complications in both groups were analyzed. Results: A total of 79 patients with 82 calculi were treated. Two cases in LL group and one in PL group had bilateral ureteral stones. Mean stone size was 12.07 mm in LL group and 10.2 mm in PL group. Stones located in lower ureter in 30 cases on LL group and 29 cases in PL group. Proximal migration of stone occurred in 1 case on LL group and in 3 cases on PL group. Successful fragmentation occurred in 37 cases on LL group and in 30 cases on PL group. Stone-free rate after 1 month in the base of Kidney Ureter Bladder (KUB) and sonography was 95% in LL group and 80.5% in PL group. Ureteral perforation, urinoma, and urosepsis were not seen in both groups. Conclusion: HO:YAG laser has advantages over PL in high efficacy of stone fragmentation and a low-retrograde migration of ureteral stone treatment. Other complication of ureteral stone treatment with LL and PL are the same and very rare.
  7,092 247 7
SYMPOSIUM
Surgical management of renal tuberculosis
Sriram Krishnamoorthy, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
July-September 2008, 24(3):369-375
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42620  PMID:19468471
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems that our country is facing today. Despite active interventions by our government, control of TB still remains to be achieved. The emergence and exponential growth of the human immunodeficiency virus and drug-resistant strains threaten to further complicate the TB situation in our country. Even in this era of advanced chemotherapy, many lives are lost every day in our country. Tuberculosis of the urinary tract, despite being one of the commonest forms of extra-pulmonary TB, is generally overlooked. Most patients present with vague lower urinary symptoms typical of urinary tract infection. In this article, we shall highlight the various issues related to the surgical management of renal and ureteral tuberculosis.
  5,664 1,257 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Simultaneous bladder and vaginal reconstruction using ileum in complicated vesicovaginal fistula
Sujata K Patwardhan, Ajit Sawant, Mohammad Ismail, M Nagabhushana, Radheshyam R Varma
July-September 2008, 24(3):348-351
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.39546  PMID:19468466
Objectives: To discuss the outcome of surgical repair in complicated vesicovaginal fistula with simultaneous bladder and vaginal reconstruction using ileum. Materials and Methods: Four female patients in the age group of 12-30 years are included. All the patients had complicated vesicovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis secondary to obstetric hysterectomy (except one secondary to the genitourinary tuberculosis). Repair of vesicovaginal fistula with simultaneous bladder augmentation, ureteric reimplantation, and reconstruction of vagina using ileum was performed in all the cases. Results: All the patients had successful repair of fistula. Vaginal reconstruction using ileum, resulted in capacious vagina. Adult patients resumed to normal sexual life. Mucus discharge was the only complaint in postoperative period. Conclusions: Malnutrition, anemia, obstructed labor, Intra uterine fetal death (IUFD), postpartum hemorrhage following forceps delivery in a rural setting followed by an emergency obstetric hysterectomy after a delay of 6-8 h (due to transfer to a tertiary center) were the few contributing factors leading to the formation of vesicovaginal fistula (VVF). Preoperative assessment of bladder capacity and vaginal capacity in such cases is mandatory. The small bowel is a readily available vascular tissue for restoring bladder and vaginal capacity.
  6,663 203 1
SYMPOSIUM
Medical management of genitourinary tuberculosis
Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Surendra K Sharma
July-September 2008, 24(3):362-368
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42619  PMID:19468470
Antimycobacterial chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB). A large body of evidence from clinical trials suggests that short-course chemotherapy regimens, employing four drugs including rifampicin and pyrazinamide, achieve cure in most of the patients with tuberculosis (TB) and are associated with the lowest rates of relapse. Standard six-month regimens are adequate for the treatment of GUTB. Directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) is the internationally recommended comprehensive strategy to control TB, and directly observed treatment is just one of its five elements. DOTS cures not only the individual with TB but also reduces the incidence of TB as well as the prevalence of primary drug-resistance in the community. Corticosteroids have no proven role in the management of patients with GUTB. Errors in prescribing anti-TB drugs are common in clinical practice. Standardized treatment regimens at correct doses and assured completion of treatment have made DOTS the present-day standard of care for the management of all forms of TB including GUTB.
  5,165 1,455 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Injection therapy for prostatic disease: A renaissance concept
Arash M Saemi, Jeffrey B Folsom, Mark K Plante
July-September 2008, 24(3):329-335
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42613  PMID:19468462
Purpose: Initially conceived as an intervention for prostatic infection, injection therapy has been used to alleviate urinary retention, and is now primarily investigated for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). For over a century, intraprostatic injection has been used as a minimally invasive surgical therapy (MIST), and is on the verge of a rebirth. This review will familiarize the reader with the origins and history of intraprostatic injection, and its evolution using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with multiple injectants. Materials and Methods: A MEDLINE review of the literature on intraprostatic injections published between 1966 and 2007 was performed, augmented with articles and documents dating back to 1832. Results: Transperineal and transurethral injections have the most systematic evaluation in patients. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each route. Most injectants consistently produce localized coagulative necrosis and gland volume reduction with varying degrees of LUTS relief. Anhydrous ethanol (AE) is the most extensively studied injected agent to date. Conclusions: Injection therapy is a promising minimally invasive treatment option for various prostatic conditions and has been examined for over 100 years. Further experience in systematic laboratory research and completion of currently ongoing clinical trials is necessary before widespread clinical application.
  5,980 272 4
SYMPOSIUM
Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients
Madhivanan Sundaram, Samiran Das Adhikary, George T John, Nitin S Kekre
July-September 2008, 24(3):396-400
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42625  PMID:19468476
Infective complications are common after renal transplantation. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infections following renal transplantation. Reactivation is the most common mode of infection. The factors responsible for this reactivation are chronic liver disease, other coexisting infections, particularly deep mycoses, pneumocystis pneumonia, nocardia, and CMV infections. Cyclosporine use advances the onset of TB to an earlier date. The median onset following transplantation is estimated to be 26 months for those who receive azathioprine and prednisolone as immunosuppression and 11 months for those who receive cyclosporine along with other immunosuppressive agents. Lung is the major site of involvement. Pyrexia of unknown origin is another common presentation. Culture and sensitivity has to be done in all possible cases. Amongst the serological techniques, Interferon alpha production is emerging as the most important. Rifampicin has to be avoided in allograft recipients as it activates cytochrome-P450 enzymes and thereby decreases the therapeutic levels of cyclosporine and prednisolone. The duration of treatment is usually extended for 18 months followed by secondary prophylaxis with isoniazid. Adverse effects of drugs are more often reported in organ recipients and have to be monitored for. Drug resistance is emerging as a problem and appropriate changes in the management have to be carried out.
  4,671 987 2
GUEST EDITORIAL
Genitourinary tuberculosis
Narmada P Gupta
July-September 2008, 24(3):355-355
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42617  PMID:19468468
  4,391 1,015 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Markers of erectile dysfunction
Kelvin P Davies, Arnold Melman
July-September 2008, 24(3):320-328
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42612  PMID:19468461
With the development and marketing of oral pharmacotherapy that is both noninvasive and successful in treating erectile dysfunction (ED), the quest to identify markers of organic ED lost ground. Indeed, the multi-factorial nature of ED may have led many researchers to conclude that searching for a universal marker of ED was futile. However, the realization that ED is strongly correlated with the overall health of men, and may act as a predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, has stimulated interest in identifying genes that can distinguish organic ED. In addition, the potential ability to suggest to the patient that ED is reversible (i.e., psychogenic) with a simple test would be of significance to both the physician and patient, as well as for reimbursement issues for therapy by insurance companies. Such a marker may also act as a non-subjective measure of the degree of ED and the efficacy of treatment. This review discusses the importance of identifying such markers and recent work identifying potential markers in human patients.
  4,733 507 1
CASE REPORTS
Congenital posterior urethral diverticula causing bladder outlet obstruction in a young male
Saurabh Agrawal, MSA Ansari, R Kapoor, D Dubey
July-September 2008, 24(3):414-415
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42630  PMID:19468481
We present a case of 26-year-old male presenting with mild renal failure. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of posterior urethral valve, but micturating cystourethrogram and endoscopic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of posterior urethral diverticulae. Transurethral resection of diverticulae was performed. Patient is voiding well and his renal function has stabilized.
  4,662 194 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Histological reclassification, histochemical characterization and c-kit immunoexpression in renal cell carcinoma
PR Rekha, S Rajendiran, Shalinee Rao, Sunil Shroff, Leena D Joseph, D Prathiba
July-September 2008, 24(3):343-347
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42616  PMID:19468465
Objectives: Renal cell carcinoma is the most lethal of all urologic malignancies. Several parameters such as histological subtype, nuclear grade and TNM staging help in determining the prognosis and treatment options. A newer therapeutic modality has been suggested based on expression of c-kit antigen by the tumor cells. This study was designed to evaluate various histological parameters and correlate them with c-kit expression. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 40 consecutive cases of renal epithelial tumors. Histological sections were reviewed and reclassified according to WHO (2004) classification and nuclear grade assessed. Hale's colloidal iron stain was done to identify the chromophobe variant. Immunostaining with c-kit was done and its expression was studied. The results were correlated and statistical significance was assessed. Results: The age range was 31-81 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Seventy per cent of the cases were clear cell RCC (ClRCC), 17.5% were chromophobe type, 7.5% were papillary RCCs and 5% cases were oncocytomas. Fuhrman nuclear grading revealed 60.5% cases to be of low grade and 39.5% high grade. Hale's colloidal iron staining was positive in chromophobe RCC and oncocytomas, while it was negative in ClRCC. Immunostaining with c-kit was positive only in oncocytomas. Conclusions: Clear cell RCC was the most common histological subtype of RCC. Clear cell RCC known to have a poor prognosis, showed a statistically significant higher nuclear grade than chromophobe and papillary RCCs which have a better prognosis. Hale's colloidal iron staining was extremely useful in distinguishing chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma from the granular cell variant of clear RCC. Our study revealed c-kit negativity in all RCC. As Imatinib could be ineffective in such tumors, its clinical activity has to be carefully assessed in such tumors through further studies.
  4,052 233 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Role of urinary biomarkers in the diagnosis of congenital upper urinary tract obstruction
Ahmed A Shokeir
July-September 2008, 24(3):313-319
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42611  PMID:19468460
Background: Congenital obstructive uropathy constitutes a significant cause of morbidity in children. Currently, there is no reference standard for the diagnosis of renal obstruction in children. The noninvasive measurement of biomarkers in voided urine has considerable appeal as a potential application in children with congenital obstructive nephropathy. The aim of the present review is to explore the current role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of obstructive uropathy in children. Materials and Methods: The literature database (PubMed) was searched from inception to May 2007 regarding the role of urinary biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with congenital obstructive uropathy. Results: The review included 23 experimental and 33 prospective controlled clinical studies. Several cytokines, peptides, enzymes and microproteins were identified as major contributors to or ensuing from obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and apoptosis. The most important biomarkers were transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1 ), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), urinary tubular enzymes [N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], and microproteins [β2 -microglobulin (β2 M), microalbumin (M.Alb) and micrototal protein (M.TP)]. All biomarkers showed different degrees of success but the most promising markers were TGFβ1 , ET-1 and a panel of tubular enzymes. These biomarkers showed sensitivity of 74.3% to 100%, specificity of 80% to 90% and overall accuracy of 81.5% to 94% in the diagnosis of congenital obstructive uropathy in children. Moreover, some of the markers were valuable in differentiation between dilated non-obstructed kidneys in need of conservative management and obstructed kidneys in need of surgical correction. Some studies demonstrated that urinary biomarkers are helpful in the evaluation of success of treatment of children with congenital renal obstruction. Some limitations of the previous studies include lack of different types of controls and small sample size. Larger studies with variable controls are invited to confirm the clinical usefulness of biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with congenital obstructive uropathy. Conclusion: Urinary biomarkers are a promising tool that could be used as a noninvasive assessment of congenital renal obstruction in children.
  3,826 407 3
CASE REPORTS
Genitourinary rhinosporidiosis
Dilip Kumar Pal, Dhrubajyoti Moulik, Manoj Kumar Chowdhury
July-September 2008, 24(3):419-421
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42632  PMID:19468483
Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous condition commonly affecting the anterior nares and nasopharynx. Apart from these two sites, infection in other sites is very rare. Here is a review of rhinosporidiosis in genitourinary organs with addition of five new cases.
  3,769 140 3
Fungating scrotal mass: A rare clinical presentation of testicular tumor
BS Yadav, S Ghoshal
July-September 2008, 24(3):406-407
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42627  PMID:19468478
A 20-year-old male patient presented with fungating scrotal mass. Investigations revealed yolk sac tumor with lung metastasis. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy. There was complete disappearance of the scrotal mass as well as metastatic disease from the lung. Fungating scrotal mass is a rare presentation of testicular tumor. This rare presentation is reported here. This is second such case in the English literature.
  3,736 162 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
5-alpha-reductase and the development of the human prostate
C Radmayr, A Lunacek, C Schwentner, J Oswald, H Klocker, G Bartsch
July-September 2008, 24(3):309-312
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42610  PMID:19468459
During the 10 th week of gestation human prostate development is about to start. Androgens are the crucial factors to stimulate the initial interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme. One of the key events in androgen metabolism is the transformation of circulating testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by tissue-linked 5α-reductase. Both, the formation of a male phenotype and the androgen-mediated growth of the prostate are mediated by DHT. To date the function of 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1) still remains unclear whereas 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) is supposed to be the predominant isoenzyme in human accessory sex tissue. Only little data are available on the detection, distribution, and effects of both isoenzymes during fetal life and infancy. Recently, immunohistochemical investigations of serial sections from fetuses and infants using specific antibodies directed against 5αR1 and 5αR2 seem to shed light on that issue. Moreover, the detection of downstream products of androgen synthesis using RT-PCR analyses for 17-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 (17 βHSD 2), 17 βHSD Type 3 and 17 βHSD Type 7 adds to discovering the molecular biological background. New studies confirm that both isoenzymes are present throughout fetal development. On the transcriptional level RT-PCR for 5αR1 and 5αR2 certifies these findings. 17 βHSD 2, 3 and 7 representing the most relevant enzymatic downstream products of cellular androgen synthesis were revealed by RT-PCR as well. Current studies discovered the expression and distribution of both 5α-reductase isoenzymes as well as the potential contribution of 5αR1 during fetal human prostate development.
  3,593 304 4
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Pediatric urology in India
V Raveenthiran, YK Sarin, M Bajpai
July-September 2008, 24(3):422-424
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42633  PMID:19468484
  3,352 188 3
UROSCAN
Thulium laser versus standard transurethral resection of the prostate: A randomized prospective trial
Deepak Dubey, K Muruganandham
July-September 2008, 24(3):428-429
PMID:19468488
  2,975 217 1
CASE REPORTS
Renal actinomycosis presenting as a suppurated solitary cyst
Ioannis Efthimiou, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Konstantina Petraki, Ioannis Zorzos
July-September 2008, 24(3):416-418
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42631  PMID:19468482
We report the case of a middle-aged female with a solitary renal cyst suppurated by Actinomyces israeli . The patient was treated successfully by emergency nephrectomy. Based on a detailed negative history of inciting events and predisposing factors for actinomycosis, negative imaging modalities for extra-renal organ implication and no involvement of the surrounding renal parenchyma, the case is considered as primary renal actinomycosis affecting a solitary cyst of the kidney. This is the first such case reported in the international literature.
  2,982 138 2
UROSCAN
What is the treatment of choice for bulbar urethral strictures which are not an indication for visual internal urethrotomy?
Deepak Dubey, K Muruganandham
July-September 2008, 24(3):427-428
PMID:19468487
  2,829 255 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
What every urologist should know about surgical trials Part I: Are the results valid?
Sohail Bajammal, Mohit Bhandari, Philipp Dahm
July-September 2008, 24(3):281-288
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42606  PMID:19468455
Surgical interventions have inherent benefits and associated risks. Before implementing a new therapy, we should ascertain the benefits and risks of the therapy, and assure ourselves that the resources consumed in the intervention will not be exorbitant. Materials and Methods: We suggest a three-step approach to the critical appraisal of a clinical research study that addresses a question of therapy. Readers should ask themselves the following three questions: Are the study results valid? What are the results? And can I apply them to the care of an individual patient? This first review article on surgical trials will address the question as to whether we consider a study valid or not. Results: Once the reader has found an article of interest on a urological intervention, it is necessary to assess the quality of the evidence. According to the hierarchy of evidence, a randomized controlled trial is the study design which is the most likely to provide an unbiased estimate of the truth. Important methodological criteria which characterize a high-quality randomized trial include description of allocation concealment, blinding, intention-to-treat analysis, and completeness of follow-up. Failure of investigators to apply these principles may raise concerns about the validity of the study results, thereby making its finding irrelevant. Conclusion: Assessing the validity of a given study is a critical first step when evaluating a clinical research study. Making this process explicit with guidelines to assess the strength of the available evidence serves to improve patient care. It will also allow urologists to defend therapeutic interventions, based on available evidence and not anecdotes.
  2,789 265 1
CASE REPORTS
Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm following percutaneous nephrolithotripsy: Treatment by transcatheter embolization
Venkat Tummala, Kunal I Nanavati, Jose M Yrizarry, Thomas Scagnelli
July-September 2008, 24(3):408-410
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42628  PMID:19468479
Vascular complications from percutaneous nephrostomy/nephrolithotripsy (PCN/PCNL) mostly involve the kidneys. Lumbar artery pseudoaneurysms from PCN and PCNL are a rare occurrence. We report a case of lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm following PCNL. This was treated successfully by transcatheter embolization.
  2,761 135 4
POINT-COUNTER-POINT
The current three-year postgraduate program in urology is insufficient to train a urologist
Gagan Gautam
July-September 2008, 24(3):336-338
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42614  PMID:19468463
  2,633 203 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Evolving perspectives of the role of novel agents in androgen-independent prostate cancer
Sujith Kalmadi, Derek Raghavan
July-September 2008, 24(3):303-308
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42609  PMID:19468458
Metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer presents an intriguing clinical challenge, with a subtle interaction between hormone-responsive and refractory tumor cell elements. The treatment of advanced prostate carcinoma, which had remained stagnant for several decades following the understanding of the link between androgenic stimulation and carcinogenesis, has now started to make steady headway with chemotherapy and targeted approaches. Metastatic prostate cancer is almost always treated with initial androgen deprivation, in various forms. However, despite such treatment androgen-independent prostate cancer cells eventually emerge and progress to threaten life. The therapeutic objectives for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer are to maintain the quality of life and prolong survival. The out-dated nihilistic dogma of deferring chemotherapy until the most advanced stages in advanced prostate cancer is now falling by the wayside with the development of newer effective, tolerable agents.
  2,576 241 1
CASE REPORTS
Percutaneous endovascular management of recurrent aneurysm of transplant renal artery anastomosed to internal iliac artery
Umapati N Hegde, Mohan M Rajapurkar, Sishir D Gang, Suhas S Lele
July-September 2008, 24(3):411-413
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42629  PMID:19468480
Aneurysm formation constitutes 0.5 to 1% of all vascular complications in transplant patients. Aneurysms may result from infection, injury during procurement or preservation, faulty suture technique or trauma. Transplant renal artery aneurysm presents with hypertension, graft dysfunction and bleeding. We report a case of percutaneous covered stent-graft for recurrent aneurysm with stenosis of transplant renal artery .To our knowledge this is the first report of successful treatment of transplant renal artery aneurysm with covered stent-graft.
  2,650 134 2
LEGENDS IN UROLOGY
Dr. B. N. Colabawalla, FRCS, FAMS
SS Joshi
July-September 2008, 24(3):279-280
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42605  PMID:19468454
  2,574 203 -
POINT-COUNTER-POINT
The current three-year postgraduate program in urology is insufficient to train urologists: Against the motion
Pankaj Wadhwa
July-September 2008, 24(3):339-342
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42615  PMID:19468464
  2,455 185 2
EDITORIAL
Subspecialisation in Urology: Setting standards or creating monopoly?
Nitin S Kekre, J Chandra Singh
July-September 2008, 24(3):277-278
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42604  PMID:19468453
  2,310 202 2
UROSCAN
Follow-up after pyeloplasty: How long?
TJ Nirmal, JC Singh
July-September 2008, 24(3):429-430
PMID:19468489
  2,244 255 -
Does early orchidopexy reduce risk of testicular cancer?
John S Banerji, J Chandra Singh
July-September 2008, 24(3):430-431
PMID:19468490
  2,184 198 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Authors' reply
Shriram Joshi
July-September 2008, 24(3):424-425
DOI:10.4103/0970-1591.42634  PMID:19468485
  2,135 90 2
UROSCAN
The effect of intravesical instillation of antifibrinolytic agents on bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment of superficial bladder cancer: A pilot study
Pawan Vasudeva, Dharamveer Singh, Apul Goel
July-September 2008, 24(3):426-427
PMID:19468486
  1,638 117 -
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