Indian Journal of Urology
: 2014  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 333--338

Novel training methods for robotic surgery

Andrew J Sun, Monish Aron, Andrew J Hung 
 Catherine and Joseph Aresty, Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

Correspondence Address:
Andrew J Hung
1441 Eastlake Ave, Suite 7416, Los Angeles CA 90089, California

Objectives: The objectives of this review are to summarize the current training modalities and assessment tools used in urological robotic surgery and to propose principles to guide the formation of a comprehensive robotics curriculum. Materials and Methods: The PUBMED database was systematically searched for relevant articles and their citations utilized to broaden our search. These articles were reviewed and summarized with a focus on novel developments. Results: A multitude of training modalities including didactic, dry lab, wet lab, and virtual reality have been developed. The use of these modalities can be divided into basic skills-based exercises and more advanced procedure-based exercises. Clinical training has largely followed traditional methods of surgical teaching with the exception of the unique development of tele-mentoring for the da Vinci interface. Tools to assess both real-life and simulator performance have been developed, including adaptions from Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill, and novel tools such as Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills. Conclusions: The use of these different entities to create a standardized curriculum for robotic surgery remains elusive. Selection of training modalities and assessment tools should be based upon performance data-based validity and practical feasibility. Comparative assessment of different modalities (cross-modality validity) can help strengthen the development of common skill sets. Constant data collection must occur to guide continuing curriculum improvement.

How to cite this article:
Sun AJ, Aron M, Hung AJ. Novel training methods for robotic surgery.Indian J Urol 2014;30:333-338

How to cite this URL:
Sun AJ, Aron M, Hung AJ. Novel training methods for robotic surgery. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Sep 30 ];30:333-338
Available from:;year=2014;volume=30;issue=3;spage=333;epage=338;aulast=Sun;type=0