Indian Journal of Urology
: 2011  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 525--531

How to appraise the effectiveness of treatment

Suzanne B Stewart1, Phillip Dahm2, Charles D Scales1 
1 Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
2 Department of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Correspondence Address:
Charles D Scales
DUMC Box 2922, Division of Urologic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710

Introduction: Advances in treatment and disease prevention occur frequently in urology. Urologists must identify a framework within which to evaluate these therapeutic innovations. Materials and Methods: The evidence-based approach to critical appraisal is described using an example from the urological literature. A three-part assessment of the trial validity, treatment effect, and applicability of results will permit the urologist to critically incorporate medical and surgical advances into practice. Results: Validity of clinical trials hinges upon balancing patient prognosis at the initiation, execution, and conclusion of the trial. Readers should be aware of not only the magnitude of the estimated treatment effect, but also its precision. Finally, urologists should consider all patient-important outcomes as well as the balance of potential benefits, harms, and costs, and patient values and preferences when making treatment decisions. Conclusion: Use of this framework for critical appraisal will lead to a more evidence-based application of new therapies for patients. Incorporation of a more evidence-based practice within urology will lead to an increase in the quality of patient care.

How to cite this article:
Stewart SB, Dahm P, Scales CD. How to appraise the effectiveness of treatment.Indian J Urol 2011;27:525-531

How to cite this URL:
Stewart SB, Dahm P, Scales CD. How to appraise the effectiveness of treatment. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2020 May 31 ];27:525-531
Available from:;year=2011;volume=27;issue=4;spage=525;epage=531;aulast=Stewart;type=0