Indian Journal of Urology
: 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 68--71

Staging of transitional cell carcinoma: Has anything changed?

JN Kulkarni, GK Bakshi 
 Department of Uro-oncology, Asian Institute of Oncology, SL Raheja Hospital, Mahim West, Mumbai - 400 016, India

Correspondence Address:
J N Kulkarni
2nd Floor, Atharva, Lake Boulevard, Hiranandani Gardens, Powai, Mumbai

Objective: This article is a systematic review of various changes in the evolution of the contemporary clinico-pathological staging of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Materials and Methods: A thorough search of the literature was done by Medline and other internet references. Results: Accurate staging of TCC is necessary for designing optimal therapy in clinical practice. Further, the current emphasis on bladder conservation and improved long-term disease free survival (DFS) necessitates minimal errors in staging and itSQs predictability towards recurrence and progression. Traditionally, the staging of TCC revolves around clinical and pathological findings. The staging has evolved through the understanding of various clinico- pathological factors like tumor appearance, number, size, grade, depth of invasion, muscle substratification, lymphovascular invasion and has reached the standard TNM classification. Cystoscopy and transurethral resection still remain the mainstay of staging and noninvasive imaging techniques have further enhanced the accuracy. Conclusion: The TNM classification for bladder cancer is currently the gold standard for TCC.

How to cite this article:
Kulkarni J N, Bakshi G K. Staging of transitional cell carcinoma: Has anything changed?.Indian J Urol 2008;24:68-71

How to cite this URL:
Kulkarni J N, Bakshi G K. Staging of transitional cell carcinoma: Has anything changed?. Indian J Urol [serial online] 2008 [cited 2020 May 25 ];24:68-71
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