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Perioperative outcomes of minimally invasive versus open radical cystectomy: A single-center experience

1 Department of Urology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ravimohan S Mavuduru,
Department of Urology, PGIMER, Chandigarh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Introduction: Open radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with significant morbidity and the role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in reducing morbidity of RC is controversial A direct comparison of various surgical modalities on perioperative outcomes is lacking in the Indian literature. We evaluated outcomes of minimally invasive (robotic and laparoscopic) versus open RC with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) performed at our institute from 2014 to 2016. Methods: Eighty-three patients of RC with PLND were prospectively analyzed from December 2014 to February 2016. All patients of muscle invasive urothelial cancer of the bladder undergoing RC (open or MIS) were included in the study. Based on patients preference they were assigned to one of the three groups (Open RC, robot-assisted RC, or laparoscopic RC). Their demographic profile, preoperative disease stage, operative data like operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, histopathological data like pathological stage, lymph-node yield etc., postoperative complications if any and total duration of stay were recorded. These data of laparoscopic, open, and robotic cystectomies were compared in terms of various demographic, histopathologic parameters and perioperative outcomes. Results: Twenty-nine patients (34.93%) underwent minimally invasive RC with PLND (5 laparoscopic and 24 robotic). The median age of patients was 58 years. Mean number of lymph nodes removed was 22.5 ± 14.6. The total number of lymph nodes removed in laparoscopic surgery was 104 with a yield of 20.6 per patient, in robotic surgery were 627 with a yield of 26.1 per patient, and in open surgery were 1119 with a yield of 20.7 per patient (P = 0.004). Clavien-Dindo Grade 2 and 3 complications were seen in 37.5% of robotic, 60% of laparoscopic, and 55.54% of open RC. Average blood loss and operative time in laparoscopic, robotic, and open RC were 511.53 ± 311.02 ml, 552.08 ± 267.63 ml, and 512.05 ± 213.9 ml and 8.23 ± 1.36 h (hrs), 7.53 ± 1.92 h, and 5.85 ± 1.76 h, respectively (P = 0.68 and <0.001, respectively). Conclusions: MIS is associated with significantly longer operative time than open RC. Robotic RC has significantly higher lymph node yield than open or laparoscopic RC. Minimally invasive RC is equivalent to open surgery in terms of perioperative morbidity, mortality, and blood loss.

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