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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 312-319

Treatment options in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer after BCG failure


Department of Urology, The University of Iowa, Iowa, USA

Correspondence Address:
Michael A O'Donnell
Department of Urology, The University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Dr., 3 RCP, Iowa City, Iowa - 52242-1089
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.166475

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Bladder cancer is the ninth-most prevalent cancer worldwide. Most patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder present with non-muscle-invasive disease and are treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) intravesical therapy. Many of these patients experience disease recurrence after BCG failure. Radical cystectomy is the recommended treatment for high-risk patients failing BCG. However, many patients are unfit for or unwilling to undergo this procedure. We searched the published literature on the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after BCG failure. We review current evidence regarding intravesical therapy with gemcitabine, mitomycin combined with thermo-chemotherapy, docetaxel, nab-paclitaxel, photodynamic therapy (PDT), BCG with interferon (IFN), and combination sequentially administered chemotherapy.


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