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SYMPOSIUM
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 181-188

Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract


Department of Urology, Ludwig-Maximilans University, Munich, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Christian Gratzke
Urologische Klinik, Marchioninistr 15, 81377 München
Germany
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: C.G. is speaker/consultant/ received honoraria for/from Astellas Pharma, Rottapharm Madaus, Lilly, Recordati Pharma, AMS, and Steba.


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.126903

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Pharmacology of the lower urinary tract provides the basis for medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Therapy of LUTS addresses obstructive symptoms (frequently explained by increased prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate enlargement) in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and storage symptoms in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Targets for medical treatment include G protein-coupled receptors (α1 -adrenoceptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, β3-adrenoceptors) or intracellular enzymes (5α-reductase; phosphodiesterase-5, PDE5). Established therapies of obstructive symptoms aim to induce prostate smooth muscle relaxation by α1 -blockers or PDE5 inhibitors, or to reduce prostate growth and volume with 5α-reductase inhibitors. Available options for treatment of OAB comprise anitmuscarinics, β3 -adrenoceptor agonists, and botulinum toxin A, which improve storage symptoms by inhibition of bladder smooth muscle contraction. With the recent approval of β3 -antagonists, PDE inhibitors, and silodosin for therapy of LUTS, progress from basic research of lower urinary tract pharmacology was translated into new clinical applications. Further targets are in preclinical stages of examination, including modulators of the endocannabinoid system and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.


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