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SYMPOSIUM
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 92-98

Managing caliceal stones


Department of Urology, Asklepios Hospital Barmbek, 22291 Hamburg, Germany

Correspondence Address:
Andreas J Gross
Department of Urology, Asklepios Hospital Barmbek, Ruebenkamp 220, 22291 Hamburg
Germany
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.124214

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The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.


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