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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-32

Free to total serum prostate specific antigen ratio in symptomatic men does not help in differentiating benign from malignant disease of the prostate


Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Anil Mandhani
Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.124202

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Introduction: Free to total prostate specific antigen ratio (f/t PSA) has been used to help improving specificity of PSA in the range of 4-10 ng/ml based on the data on population based screening. There is no data on test characteristics of f/t PSA in men presenting with clinical symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study is aimed to determine the usefulness of f/t PSA in symptomatic men. Methodology: From January 2006 to June 2012, men of 50-75 years with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), normal rectal examination and PSA between 4-20 ng/ml had free and total PSA assessment. Men with clinical evidence of prostatitis, retention, history of 5α blocker reductase inhibitors and those who had surgery or biopsy on the prostate in last 3 months were excluded. Receiver operating characteristic curves were derived for f/t PSA and total PSA. The effect of age, prostate volume and Gleason score on the f/t PSA was also analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed on SPSS 16 (Chicago, USA). Results: Out of 170 men with the mean age of 67.4 ΁ 6.6 years, 43 (25.3%) had cancer on biopsy. Area under the curve for predicting the presence or absence of prostate cancer in all the men with f/t ratio was 0.63 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.71). The median value of f/t PSA for men with cancer was 5.5% (1-25%) and 9.2% (1-63%) for those with no cancer. Cut-offs derived at 95% specificity at PSA between 4-10 ng/ml and 4-20 ng/ml were 0.5% and 1% respectively. The specificity of f/t PSA ratio at cut-off levels 7%, 10% and 15% was 73%, 60%, 45% for PSA range of 4-10 ng/ml and 63%, 47% and 35% for PSA range of 4-20 ng/ml PSA. Age, prostate volume and Gleason grade did not show any effect on f/t PSA. Conclusion: In men with LUTS the specificity of various f/t PSA ratio cut-offs; described for population based screening, is too low to be used as an aid to defer the decision of biopsy in PSA ranges of 4-20 ng/ml.


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