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SYMPOSIUM
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 102-109

Surgical sperm retrieval: Techniques and their indications


Department of Urology, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Bandra Reclamation, Mumbai, India

Correspondence Address:
Rupin Shah
Department of Urology, Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Bandra Reclamation, Mumbai - 400 050
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.78439

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Men with azoospermia can father a child through intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection if sperm can be retrieved from their epididymis or testis. Several percutaneous and open surgical procedures have been described to retrieve sperm. The various techniques and their merits are discussed in this review. In men with obstructive azoospermia, epididymal sperm can usually be retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). If PESA fails then testicular sperm are obtained by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB). In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, there will be no sperm in the epididymis and testicular sperm retrieval is required. Percutaneous retrieval by NAB can be tried first. If that fails then testicular sperm extraction (TESE) from open microsurgical biopsies is performed using the single seminiferous tubule (SST) or the microdissection TESE techniques. The simplest, least invasive procedure should be tried first.


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