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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 446-454

Staging of renal cell carcinoma: Current concepts


Roy and Patricia Disney Family Cancer Center, Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center, Burbank, CA 91505, USA

Correspondence Address:
John S Lam
Valley Urologic Specialists, 191 South Buena Vista Street, Suite 235, Burbank, CA 91505
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.57906

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The most important and widely utilized system for providing prognostic information following surgical management for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently the tumor, nodes, and metastasis (TNM) staging system. An accurate and clinically useful staging system is an essential tool used to provide patients with counseling regarding prognosis, select treatment modalities, and determining eligibility for clinical trials. Data published over the last few years has led to significant controversies as to whether further revisions are needed and whether improvements can be made with the introduction of new, more accurate predictive prognostic factors. Staging systems have also evolved with an increase in the understanding of RCC tumor biology. Molecular tumor biomarkers are expected to revolutionize the staging of RCC by providing more effective prognostic ability over traditional clinical variables alone. This review will examine the components of the TNM staging system, current staging modalities including comprehensive integrated staging systems, and predictive nomograms, and introduce the concept of molecular staging for RCC.


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