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SYMPOSIUM
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 188-194

General considerations in hypospadias surgery


Department of Urology, SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Amilal Bhat
Department of Urology, S.P. Medical College, C-15 Sadul Ganj, Bikaner - 334 003, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.40614

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Nonsystemic review of the literature was done for timing of surgery, preoperative evaluation and plan, anesthesia, suture materials, magnification, tissue handling, stent and diversion problems, intra and postoperative care, dressing, and follow-up protocol. The best time for hypospadias repair is between 6 and 18 months. Preoperative evaluation in proximal hypospadias includes hormonal and radiological examination for intersex disorders, as well as for upper tract anomalies along with routine evaluation. General anesthesia is a rule but local blocks help in reducing the postoperative pain. Magnification, gentle tissue handling, use of microsurgical instruments, and appropriate-sized stent for adequate period help in improving the results. Hormonal stimulation is useful to improve growth and vascularity of urethral plate and decrease the severity of chordee in poorly developed urethral plate with severe curvature. Urethral plate preservation urethroplasty with spongioplasty is the procedure of choice in both proximal and distal hypospadias. Algorithms are proposed for management of hypospadias both with curvature and without curvature. Two-stage urethroplasty has its own indications. A good surgical outcome may be achieved following basic surgical principles of microsurgery, fine suture materials, choosing one or two-stage repair as appropriate, proper age of surgery, and with good postoperative care. Future of hypospadiology is bright with up coming newer modalities like laser shouldering, robotics, and tissue engineering.


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