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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 145-149

Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric urology


1 Department of Urology, CHA General Hospital, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Seoul, Korea
2 Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Correspondence Address:
Kun Suk Kim
Department of Urology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736
Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.40605

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in infants and children. Children at risk for UTI such as vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) commonly receive prophylactic antibiotics to prevent renal scarring, which may lead to complications such as hypertension or end-stage renal disease. Recurrent UTI, with or without VUR, is the most common reason for long-term antibiotic prophylaxis in infants and children. However, the efficacy and importance of long-term antibiotic prophylaxis have not been assessed in well-controlled, prospective studies. Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole have been used as prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of UTI in children. Such medications are mostly safe in children for the long-term prophylactic therapy. Serious side effects are extremely rare and most are reversible with discontinuation of therapy. Although it is difficult to perform prospective studies in children and many factors are involved in the clinical course and prognosis of these patients, further studies are needed to evaluate the actual benefits of prophylactic antibiotics. Meanwhile, in infants and children with risk factors, long-term antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, at least until there is evidence that these patients are not endangered by avoiding it.


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