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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2003  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7-13

Prevention of urological cancer


Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
M S Ansari
Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol­ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation­related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad­der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven­tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita­mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants) like vits. A, D, C, and E, min­erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre­ventive strategies for various urological cancers.


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